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Full text of "New-Englands plantation : with the sea journal and other writings"

PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE ESSEX BOOK AND PRINT CLUB 

No. I 

NEW-ENGLANDS 
PLANTATION 

&c. 



PLANTATION 



WITH 



The Sea jfournal and 
Other TVritings 

By Rev. Francis Higginson 

First Minuter of the Plantation at Salem 
in the Massachusetts Bay Colony 




T'he Essex Book and Prini^ Club 

SALEM MASSACHUSETTS 

1908 



ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE COPIES 

PRINTED AT THE RIVERSIDE PRESS 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

FOR THE ESSEX BOOK 

AND PRINT 

CLUB 



Introduction 




EW-ENGLANDS 
PLANTATION/' 

a tract published in 
London early in 1630, 
contains the earliest 
printed account of the 
colony established by 
Endecott in 1628, at Neihum-kek, now 
Salem. A description of the natural con- 
ditions surrounding the new settlement is 
also preserved, the narrative presenting, 
in the quaint phrase of the original, **a 
short and true description of the com- 
modities and discommodities of that 
countrey/' The tract was written by the 
Reverend Francis Higginson, who came 
in the emigration following Endecott, 
and who was eminently fitted, both by 
education and profession, to prepare for 
the friends in England a faithful account 
of the life in the new country, not only to 
gratify a natural curiosity, but also to at- 
tract a further emigration. 

[ 5 ] Francis 



Introduction 

Francis Higginson probably was born 
in Claybrooke Parish, Leicester, Eng- 
land, in 1587-88. He received his degree 
of M.A. in 1 6 1 3 at Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, and two years later he was set- 
tled over Claybrooke Parish, where he 
preached with distinction until at last his 
nonconformity brought him into danger 
of imprisonment. About that time " The 
Governor and Company of the Massa- 
chusetts-Bay in New England '' obtained 
a charter from Charles I, and Higginson 
was invited to join the party which was 
being organized to make the first settle- 
ment in the new country. As minister he 
was to have equal political authority with 
the members of the governing council. 
He accepted the invitation, and with his 
family landed safely at Neihum-kek,now 
Salem, Massachusetts, on June 30, 1629, 
and on the 6th of August following, was 
ordained teacher of the church, with Sam- 
uel Skelton as pastor. By virtue of his office 
he became not only a spiritual guide but 
a leader among his people, more espe- 
cially during the trying winter and spring 
following the arrival of the ships. The ex- 
posure and the privations endured during 
that time proved too severe, and consump- 
tion laid hold upon him. He died August 
6, 1630, "in the prime of his life and on 
[ 6 ] the 



Introduction 

the threshold of a great career," leaving 
a widow and eight children, one of whom 
also became a minister and served the Sa- 
lem church for nearly fifty years. 

The manuscript of "New-Englands 
Plantation '* probably was sent home to 
England upon the return of one of the 
vessels that had brought over the planters. 
It was received in London before Novem- 
ber 20, 1629 (see Young's " Chronicles of 
the Colony ofthe Massachusetts Bay,'* pp. 
107, 242). Higginson had not expected 
that it would be printed, as it was written 
for "the satisfaction of loving friends*' 
who had requested a letter upon his ar- 
rival, giving some account of the voyage 
across the Atlantic and of the newly settled 
country. Only the latter part of this letter 
was printed, the earlier portion, describ- 
ing the voyage, not being deemed of suf- 
ficient importance to be thus preserved. 
Three editions were published, all bearing 
date of 1 630. The author's name appears 
on the title-pages of the second and third 
editions. In 1634 was published William 
Wood's**NewEnglands Prospect," which 
gave much detailed information regard- 
ing the country and the settlements in the 
Massachusetts Bay. This superseded the 
earlier account by Higginson, and the 
latter dropped out of sight and in time 
[ 7 ] became 



Introduction 

became very rare. In 1792 it was re- 
printed in the Massachusetts Historical 
Collections. In 1836 it was included in 
Force's " Tracts/* and in 1 846 in Young's 
" Chronicles of the Colony of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay." 

The several editions may be described 
as follows : 

First Edition 

New-Englands | Plantation. | or, | A Short 
and Trve | Description of the | Commodities 
and I Discommodities | ofthatCountrey. | Writ- 
ten by a reuerend Diuinenow | there resident. | 
[Printer's ornament] | London, | Printed by 
T.C.andR.C.for Michael Sparlce, | dwelling 
at the Signe of the Blew Bible in | Greene Ar- 
bor in the little Old Bailey. | 1630. | 

Small4to.2i unnumbered pages. Collation: 
Title ( I ), reverse blank ; To the Reader, signed 
M. S. ( I ), reverse blank ; New-Englands Plan- 
tation (17); ends "Finis." Signatures, B- (D 
on last page). 

Second Edition 

New-Englands | Plantation. | Or, | A Short 
and Trve | Description of the | Commodities 
and I Discommodities! ofthatCountrey. | Writ- 
ten by Mr. Higgeson, a reuerend Diuine | now 
there resident. | Whereunto is added a Let- 
ter, sent by Mr.Graues | an Enginere, out of 
New-England, | The second Edition enlarged. | 
[Printer's ornament] | London, | Printed by 
[ 8 ] T. 



Introduction 

T. & R. Cotes, for Michael Sparke, | dwelling 
at the Signeof the Blew Bible in | Greene Ar- 
bor in the little Old Bailey. | 1630. | 

Small 4to. 27 unnumbered pages. Collation : 
Title ( I ) , reverse blank ; To the Reader, signed 
M. S. (i ), reverse blank ; New-Englands Plan- 
tajon (23) ; ends " Fjnjs." Signatures, B (begin- 
ning with " New-Englands Plantajon ") - D [4] 

Third Editon 

New-Englands | Plantation. | or, | A Short 
and True [ Description of the | Commodities 
and I Discommodities | of that Countrey. | Writ- 
ten by Mr. Higgeson, a reuerendDiuine I now 
there resident. | Whereunto is added a Let- 
ter, sent by Mr. Graues | an enginere, out of 
New England, | The Third Edition, enlarged. | 
[Printer's ornament] | London. | Printed by 
T. and R. Cotes, for Michael Sparke, dwell- 
ing I at the Signe of the Blue Bible in Greene- 
Arbor, 1630. I 

Small 4to. 23 numbered pages. Collation: 
Title ( I ), reverse. To the Reader, signed M. S. 
(2); New-Englands Plantation (3-1 7); [Or- 
nament] A Letter sent from New-England, 
by Master Graues, engynere now there resi- 
dent (18-19); A Catalogue of such needfull 
things as euery Planter doth or ought to Pro- 
uide to go to N ew-England, etc. (20-2 1 ) ; The 
names of the most remarkable places in New- 
England (22-23); ^^<^s "Fjnjs." Signatures, 
A7 ; I leaf, B-D in 4s. 



[ 9 ] Copies 



Introduction 

Copies of the several editions are pre- 
served in the follou^ing libraries : 

First Edition, 

Harvard University Library. 

Essex Institute Library, Salem, Mass. (This 
copy has title-page and last leaf in fac- 
simile.) 

John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. L 

New York Public Library (Lenox Library). 

New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

Library of Congress. 

Library of E. D. Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Library of a Collector, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Library of Frederick R. Halsey, New York 
City. 

Library of Edward E. Ayer, Chicago, 111. 

Second Edition, 

Boston Public Library. 
New York Public Library (Lenox Library). 
Library of E. D. Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Library of a Collector, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Library of Henry Huth, London, Eng. 

Third Edition, 

Boston Public Library. 
Massachusetts Historical Society Library. 
John Carter Brown Library, Providence, R. I. 
New York Public Library (Lenox Library). 
Philadelphia Library Company. (This copy 

has title-page of the first edition bound with 

text of the third edition.) 
British Museum Library. 
Library of Edward E. Ayer, Chicago, 111. 

[ lo ] In 



Introduction 

In the following pages the first edition 
of "New-Englands Plantation " is repro- 
duced in fac-simile from a copy in the 
John Carter Brown Library, at Provi- 
dence, R. I., through the courtesy of the 
Librarian, Mr. George Parker Winship. 
The third edition also has been reprinted 
from a copy in the library of the Mass- 
achusetts Historical Society for purposes 
of comparison and to preserve the addi- 
tional matter that it contains. The ac- 
count of the voyage to Neihum-kek and 
other writings of Higginson are from the 
manuscript formerly in the possession of 
Governor Hutchinson and now preserved 
by the Massachusetts Historical Society. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



" New-Englands Plantation," by 
Rev. Francis Higginsoriy London, 
1630. Fac-simile of the first edition 15 

"Generall Consideracons" for the 

planting of New England 39 

The Agreement between Mr. Hig- 
ginson and the New England 
Company 49 

A true relation of the last voyage 
TO New England in 1629 by Mr. 
Higginson 55 

"New-Englands Plantation," Lon- 
don, 1630. The third edition 85 

A LETTER THAT Mr. HiGGINSON SENT 

to his friends at leicester i i 5 

Notes 123 

Index 127 



NEW-ENGLANDS PLANTATION 



NEVV-ENGLANDS 

PLANTATION. 

OR, 

A SHORT AND TRVE 

DESCRIPTION OF THE 

COMMODITIES AND 

DISCOMMODITIES 

of chat Countrey. 

Written by a reuerend Diuine now 
there refident. 




LONDON, 

Printed by T.C and 1{.C.fot Michael Sparkr, 

dwelling at the Signc of the ^te» tibk in 

CreeiK Jrbtr in the litde OliBsiltj^ 

1630. 





To the Reader. 

^Eader^doe not difdaim to r ead this 
Illation . and looke not here to 

haue a large Gate and no building 
within . a fuU^Jlt^Jfcd Title with no matter 
in the 'Booke \ 'But here reade the truth ^ and 
that thou (I) alt find without any frothy bum^ 
hajled ^ords^ or any quaint new^dcu't^ed ad^ 
ditions^ onely as it t^as ^Vritten (not intended 
for the PreJJe j by a reuerend Viuine now 
there lmng,'))?ho onely Jent it tofome Friends 
here ^hich leer e defirous of hisT\elations-^ 
'i)?hich is an Epitomy of their proceedings in 
the Plantation. Jnd for thy part if thou 
meanejl to be no Planter nor Venturer^ doe 
but lend thy good Trayersfor the furthrance 
of it. And fojrejla '\y'elUwi[J)er to all the 
good defigncs both of themlphlch are gone^ 
and of them that are togoe. 

M. S. 





NEVVENGLANDS 

TLAlSiTATLOK. 

Erring paffe our Voyage 
by Sea,v/e will now begin 
our difcoiirfe on rhc fliorc 
of Ncrv-En^^Ufjd, And be- 
caufc rhc life and wcI-fare 
of euerie Crcarure here 
beIow5andrhc commodi- 
oufncfic of rhc Countrey 
whereas fuch Crearurcs liue^dorh by rhcmoft 
wife ordering of Gods prouidencCj depend 
nexr vnro himfclfe, vpon rhe remperarureand 
difpofition of rhe foufc Elemenrs, Earrh, 
Warcr, Aire and Fire ( For as of rhe mixrurc 
of all rhefe, all fiibkinaiie rhings are compo- 
fed 5 fo by rhc more.or leflc inioymenr oPthe 
wholefome remper and conucnienr vfe of 
rhefe, confifteth rhe onely well-being borh of 
Man and Beaft in a more or lefTe comforrable 
meafurc in all Counrrey s vnder rhe Hcanens) 
Therefore I will endeauour ro fliew you what 
T^rV'EngUndis by rhe confiderarion of each 
of rhcfc aparr, and rruly endeauour by Gods 
helpe ro reporr norhing bur. rhe naked rrurh 
and thar borh ro rell you of rhe difcommodi- 
ries as well as of the commodities, though as 

B the 



the idle Prouerbe is, Jraueliers may lye ly ah- 
thoYttie^ and fo may take too much finf iiU. li- 
bcrtie that way. Yet I may fay of my felfe as 
once Nehemiah did in another cafe : shall fuch 
A Man as I Ije ? No verily : It becommeth 
not a Preacher of Truth to be a Writer of 
Falfhood in any degree : and therefore I haue 
beene -careful! to report nothing of New- 
Englifid but what I haue partly feene with 
mine owne Eyes, and partly heard and enqui- 
red from the Mouthes of verie honeft and 
religious perfon, who by liuing in the Coun- 
trey a good fpace of time haue had experience 
and knowledge of the ftate thereof, & whofe 
teftimonies 1 doe beleeue as my felfe. 

Firft therefore of the Eanh of Netp-E^gUnd 
and all the appurtenances thereof : It is a Land 
of diuers and fundry forts all about Mafathu^ 
lets Bay, and at Char Us Riuer is as fat blacke 
Earth as can be feene any where : and in other 
places you haue a clay foyle, in other grauelj, 
in other fandy^as it is all about our Plantation 
at SaUm^foi fo our Towne is now named, 
TfaL J 6.1. 

The forme of the Earth here in the fuper- 
ficies of it is neither too flat in the plainnefle, 
nor too high in Hils, but partakes of both m 
a mcdiocririe, and fit for Pafture,or for Plow 
or Meddowground,as Menpleafe to employ 
it: though all the Countrey be as it were a 
thicke Wood for the generall, yet in diuers 
places there is much ground cleared by the 
JndkffSf^d efpecially about the Plantation: 

and 



NetP'h^glands Tlavidtion. 
and I am told that about three miles from vs a 
Man may ftand on a litdc hilly place and fee 
diuers thoufands of acres of ground as good 
as need to bc^and not a Tree in the fame. It is 
thought here is good Clay to make Bricke 
and Tyles and Earthen-Pots as needs to be* 
At this inftant we are fetting a Brickc-Kill on 
worke to make Brickes and Tyles for the 
building of our Houfes. For Stone, here is 
plentie of Slates at the lie of Slate in Af^- 
thulets Bay, and Lime-ftone, Frce-ftone, and 
Smooth-ftone, and Iron-ftone,and Marble- 
ftone alfo in fuch ftore, that we haue great 
Rockcs of it, and a Harbour hard by. Our 
Plantation is from thence called Marble-har- 
bour. 

Of Minerals there hath yet beene but little 
•triall madc,yet we arc not without great hope 
of being furniflicd in that Soyle. 

The tertilitie of the Soyle is to be admired 
at, as appcareth in the aboundance of Graffc 
that gro weth euerie where both verie thicke, 
verie long, and verie high in diuers places: 
but it groweth very wildly with a great ftalke 
and a broad and ranker bladc,becaufc it neuex 
had been eaten with Cattle, nor mowed with 
a Sy the, and feldome trampled on by foot. 
It is Icarce to be bclccued how our Kine and 
Goats, Horfcs and Hoggcs doe thriue and 
profper here and like well of this Countrey. 

In our Plantation we haue already a quart 
of Milke for a penny : but the aboundant en- 
crcafc of Cornc proues this Countrey to be 

B 2 a 



a wonderment- Thirtie/ortiejfiftieyfixtic are 
ordinarue heic : yea lofephs encreaft m t^gjft 
is out-ftript here with v$. Our Planters hope 
to haue more then a hundred fould this yere ; 
and all this while I am within compafTe- what 
will you fay 6f two hundred fould and vp- 
wards ? It is almoft incredible what great 
gainc fome of our Englifli Planters haue had 
by our Indian Corne. Credible perfons haue 
aJiiu'cd me, and the partie himfelfe auouched 
rhe truth of it to rae^rhar of the letting of 15 
Gallons of Corne he hath had encreafe of it 
5 2 HqgflieadSjeuerie Hoglliead holding feuen 
Bufhels o^ London meafure^and euerieBufliell 
was by him fold and trufted to the tndkm for 
fo much Beaiier as was worth 18 (hilHngs 5 and 
fo of this 15 Gallons of Corne which was 
worth 6 fliillings 8 pence, he made about 327 
pounds of it the y cere fcllowingjas by recko- 
ning will appeare : where you may fee how 
God blcffcth husbandry in this Land. There 
is notfuch great and beautiful! eares of Corne 
I fuppofe any where elfe to be found bur in 
this Countrcy ; being alfo of varietie of co- 
lours^as red^blev/ and yellow,&c. and of one 
Corne there fpringcth foure or fiue hundred. 
I haue fent you many Eares of diners colours 
chat you might fee the tmth of it. 

Little Children here by fetting of Come 
may earne much more then their owne main- 
tenance* 

They haue try ed our tnglifh Corne at new 

Flimouth Plantation, fo that all onr feuerall 

i^' Graines 



NeW'EngUnds Plant at hn. 

Graines will grow here verie well, and haiic a 
fitting Soylc for their nature. 

Our Gouernour hath (lore of greene Peafc 
growing in his Garden as good as euer I eat 
ia EngUni^ 

This Countrcy aboundcth naturally with 
ftore of Roots of great varietic and good to 
cat. Our Turnips^ Parfnips and Carrots arc 
here both bigger and fweeterthenis ordina- 
rily to be found ia England, Here are alfo (lore 
of PumpionSjCovvcumbcrs^and other things 
of that nature which 1 know nor. Alfo^diuers 
excellent Pot-herbs grow abundantly among 
the GraflCj as Strawberric leaues in all places 
of the Countrcy^and plentic of Strawberries 
in their time, and Pcny royall, Winterfaueric, 
SorrelljErookehme^Liuervvort, Caruell and 
WatercrefTes ^alfo Leekcs and Onions are or- 
dinarie^and diuers Phyficall Hcrbes. Here are 
alfo aboundancc of other fweet Herbes de- 
lightfuU to the fmell, whofe names we know 
not^&c. and plentie of fingle Damaske Rofes 
verie fweet j and two kmds of Hcrbes that 
beare two kind of Flowers very fweer^which 
they fay, are as good to make Cordage or 
Cloath as any Hcmpe or Flaxe we hauc. 

Excellent Vines are here vp and downe in 
the Woods. Our Gouernour hath already 
planted a Vineyard with great hope of en- 
creafe. 

AlfojMulbcrics, Plums, Rafpberics, Cor- 
rance,Chcfnuis,Filbcrds,V/alnuts,Smalnuts, 
Hurtlcberies & Hawes of Whitethornc necre 

B 3 as 



as good as ourCherries in EngUnd^thty grow 
in plentic here. 

For Wood there is no better in the World 
I thinkc, here being foure forts of Oke diffe- 
ring both in the Leafe, Timber, and Colour, 
all excellent good. There is alfo good Afh, 
ElmCjWilloWjBirchjBeechjSaxafrasJuniper 
CiprcSjCcdarjSprucejPines & Firre that will 
yeeld abundance of Turpentine^Pitch^Tarrc, 
Mafl-s and other materials for building both 
of Ships and Houfes. Alfo here are ftorc of 
Sumacke Trees, they are good for dying and 
tanning of Leather,like\vife fuch Trees yceld 
a precious Gum calkd White Bcniamen, that 
they fay is excellent for perfumes. Alfo here 
be diners Roots and Berries wherewith the 
Jndiam dye excellent holy day colours that no 
raine nor wafliing can alter. Alfo, wee haue 
materials to make Sope-Aflies and Sak-Peter 
in aboundancc. 

For Beafts there arc fome Beares^ and they 
fay fome Lyons alfo 5 for they haue been {^Q(^n 
at Cape Ame, AHb here are feuerall forts of 
Deere, fome whereof bring three or foure 
young ones at once, which is not ordinarie in 
EngUnd. Alfo Wolues, Foxes, Beauers,Ot- 
ters,Martins,great wild Cats, & a great Bead 
called a Molke as bigge as an Oxe.I haue ^(t^xx 
the Skins of all thefe Beafts fince I came to 
this Plantation excepting Lyons. Alfo here 
are great ftore of Squcrrels,fomx greater,and 
fome fmaller and lelfer ; there are Ibme of the 
Icfler fortjthey tell me^that by a certaine Skin 

will 



will fly from Tree to Tree though they (land 
farrediftont, 

Offfj^ i^Aters ^/New-England mth the things 
heUnghig t9 thefime, 

Ntxp-EngUnd hath Water enough both 
fait and frefh, the greateft Sea in the 
World, the Mlanticke Sea runs all along the 
Coaft thereof.Thcre are abundance of Ilands 
along the Shorc/ome full of Wood and Mart 
to feed Swine • and others cleerc of Wood, 
and fruitfuU to bcare Corne, Alfo we haue 
ftore of excellent harbours for Ships, as at 
Cape AmCy and at MaJathuUts Bay, and at 
Sale?n^ and at many other places :and they are 
the better becaufe for Strangers there is a ve- 
rie difficult and dangerous paffage into them, 
but vnto Ibch as arc well acquainted with 
them, they are eafie and fafe enough. The 
aboundance of Sea-Fifli arc aim oil beyond 
beleeuing,and fure I fhould fcarce haue bclce- 
ued it except I had feene it with mine owne 
Eyes. I faw great ftore of Whales, and 
CrampulTe, and fuch aboundance of Make- 
rils that it would aftonifli one to behold,Iike- 
wife Cod-Fifl] aboundance on the Coaftjand 
in their feafon are plentifully taken. There is a 
Fi/h called a BaflCja mod fv/eet & wholefomc 
Fi/h as eucr I did eat, it is altogether as good 
as our fircfh Sammon, and the feafon of their 
comming was begun when we came f?rft to 
NcW'EngUnd \ii ime^ and fo continued about 

three 



t^€V9'tnghni$ vkntAtm. 

^hree months fpacc. Of this Fifii our Fiflier s 
takernany hundreds together, which I haue 
feene lying on the fliore to my admiration 5 
yea, their Nets ordinarily take more then 
they are able to hale to Land^and for want of 
Boats and Men they are conftrained to let a 
many goe after they haue taken them^and yet 
fometimes they fill two Boats at a time with 
them. Andbehdes Baffe we take plentie of 
Scare and Thornbacke, and aboundance of 
Lobfters, that the leaft Boy in the Plantation 
may both catch and cat what he wil of them^ 
For my owne part I was foone cloyed with 
them5they were fo greatjand fat, and luffious. 
I haue feenc fomemy felfe that haue weighed 
16 pound, but others haue had diuers time fo 
great Lobfters as haue weighed 2 5 pound^as 
they allured me. Alfo here is aboundance of 
Herring,Turbut,Sturgion,Cuskes,Hadocks, 
Mullets, Eelcs, Crabs, Muskles and Oyfters. 
Befide there is probabilitie that the Countrcy 
is of an excellent temper for the making of 
Salt: for fince our comming our Fifhcrmen 
haue brought home veric good Salt which 
they found candied by the {landing of the Sea 
water and the heat of the Sunne,vpon a Rock 
by the Sea Ihore : and in diuers Salt Mariilies 
that fome haue gone through,they haue found 
fomeSalt in fome places cruihing vnder their 
Feet and cleaning to their Shoes. 

And as for frefli Water the Countrey is full 
of daintie Springs,and fome great Riuers,and 
fome IcfTer Brookes 5 and ^iMa/kthulefsBay 

they 



tliey digged Wcis and found Water ait three 
Foot dccpc in mod places : and nccre SaUm 
they haueas fine clcarc Water as \vc can de- 
fire, and we may digge Wcls and find Water 
where we lift. 

Thus we fee both Land and Sea abound 
with ftore of bleflings for the comfortable 
fuftenance of Mans life h\ Nevf-EngUni. 

Of the Aire ^New-England mth the Temfer 
€Hd Creatures in it. 

THe Temper of the Aire o( New-EngUai 
is one fpcciall thing that commends this 
place. Experience doth manifeft that there is 
hardly a more healthful! place to be found m 
the World that agreeth better with our En- 
glifliBodyes. Many that haue beene weake 
and fickly in old EngUndyhy comming hither 
hane beene thoroughly healed and grownc 
healthfull and ftrong. For here is an extraor- 
dinarie cleere and dry Aire that is of a moft 
healing nature to all fuch as are of a Cold, 
Melancholy,Flcgmatick, Reumaticke temper 
of Body, None can more truly fpeake hereof 
by their owne experience then my felfe. My 
Friends that knew me can well tell how veric 
fickly I haue been and continually in Phy fick, 
being much troubled with a tormenting paine 
through an extraordinarie weakneffe of my 
Storaacke^and aboundance of Mclancholickc 
humors J but fince I came hither on this Voy- 
age, I thankc God I haue had perfect health, 

C and 



IsltW'tnglinh vUnUtton. 

and freed from paine and vomitings, hauing a 
Stomacke to digeft the hardcft and courfeft 
fare who before could not eat fineft meat-and 
whereas my Stomacke could oncly digeft and 
did require fuch drinke as was both ftrong 
and ftalcj now I can and doe oftentimes drink 
New- Engkni water veric wcll3and I that hauc 
not gone without a Cap for many yceres to- 
gether, neither durft leaue off the fame, haue 
now caft away my Cap^ and c^ot weare none 
at all in the day time : and whereas before- 
time I cloathed my felfe with double cloathcs 
and thicke Waftcoats to keepe me warme^ 
euen in the Summer time, I doe now gee as 
thin clad as any, onely wearing a hghtStuffe 
Caffocke vpon my Shirt and Stuffe Breeches 
of one thicknefle without Linings. Befides^ 
I hauc one of my Children that was formerly 
moft lamentably handled with fore breaking 
out of both his hands and feet of the Kings 
Euil], but lince he came hither he is verie well 
ouer hce was, and there is hope of perfe<5i re- 
couerie fliortly, euen by the verie wholcfom- 
ncffe of the Aire, altering, digefting and dry- 
ing vp the cold and crude humors of the Bo- 
dy: and therefore I thinkeitisawifecourfe 
for all cold compledion^ to come to' take 
Phyficke in New Enghnd ; for a fup of Nerv- 
Englands Aire is better then a whole draft of 
old EngUnds Ale. 

\r\ the Summer time in the midft of July 
and Augufi it is a good deale hotter then in old 
England : and in Winter^ January snd February 

axe 



Nct^-LnghnAs Thnmion. 

arc much colder as they fay: but the Spring 
aiid Autumnc arc of a middle temper. 

Fowles of tlic Aire arc plcntifiill here^ and 
of all forts as we haucin£/;^/<^/?^a$farrcas 
I can learne, and a great many of ftrange 
Fowlcs which we know not. Whilft I was 
writing thcfcthings^one of oiu- Men brought 
home an Eagle which he had killed in the 
Wood : they fay they arc good meat. Alfo 
here arc many kinds of excellaic Hawkes, 
both Sea Hawkcs and Land Hawkcs : and my 
(eJfc walking in the Woods with another in 
company, iprung a Partridge fo bigge that 
through the heauincdc of his Body could fly 
but a Uttle way : they that haue killed them, 
fay they are as bigge as our Hens. Here are 
like wile aboundance of Turkies often killed 
in the Woods, fane greater then our Engh/Ii 
Turkies, and cxxeeding fat, fweet and fleihy, 
for hcrcthcy haue aboundance of feeding all 
the yecrc long,as Strawberries,in Summer all 
places are full of them,and all manner of Ber- 
ries and Fruits. In the Winter time I haue 
fecnc Flockes of Pidgeons, and haue eaten of 
them: they doc flye from Tree to Tree as 
other Bircls doc,which our Pidgeons will not 
doe in Erfg/a^dizhcy arc of all colours as ours 
arc, but their wings and taylcs jlrcfarr longer, 
and therefore it is likely they fly fwifter to 
efcape the terrible Hawkcs in this Countrey. 
In Winter time this Countrey doth abound 
with wild Gcelc, wild Duckcs, and other Sea 
FowlCjthat agieat part of winter the Planters 

C 2 haue 



haue eaten nothing but roaftnaeat of dluers 
Fowles which they haue killed. 

Thus you haue heard of the Earthy Water 
and Aire of New-EngUnd, now it may be you 
expedl fomething to be faid of the Fire pro- 
portionable to the reft of the Elements. 

Indeed I thinke New England may boaft of 
this Element more then of all the reft : for 
though it be here fomthing cold in the vvintcr^ 
yet here we haue plentie of Fire to warme vs^ 
and that a great deale cheaper then they fell 
Billets and Fsggots in London : nay^ all Eur of e 
is not able to afford to make fo great Fires as 
New.EngUnd. A poorc Seruant here that is to 
pofleffc but 50 Acres of Land^may afford to 
giue more wood for Timber and Fire as good 
as the world yeeldsjthen many Noble Men \xi 
England can afford to doe.Here is good liuing 
for thofe that Iquc good Fires. And although 
New-England haue no Tallow to make Can- 
dles of, yet by the aboundance of the Fifli 
thereof, it can afford Oyle for Lampes. Yea 
our Pine-Trees that are the mofl plentif ull of 
all wood, doth allow vs plentie of Candles, 
which are verie vfefjll in aHoufc:and they 
are fuch Candles as the Indians commonly 
vfe,hauing no other,and they are nothing elle 
but the wood of the Pine Tree clouen in two 
little flices fomething thin J which arc fo full 
of the moyfture of Turpentine and Pitch, 
that they burne as cleere as a Torch. I haue 
fentyoufome of them that you mly fee the 
experience of thcm» 

Thus 



k 



Nm-EnglanJs Plant. it kn. 

Thus of Neyp-England$ commodities^now 
I will tell you of fomg difcommodities that 
circ here to be found. 

Firft^ In the Summer fcafon for thcfc three 
months lunf, July and Attgnfi^ we arc troubled 
much with little Fly cs called MuskctocSj be- 
ing the fame they arc troubled with inZL/Vf. 
colnJl}/cr^ and the Fcns:iind they nre nothing 
but Gnats, which except they be fmokcd out 
of their Howies are troublcfome in the night 
feafon. 

Secondly, In the Winter fcafon for two 
months fpace the Earth is commonly couered 
with Snow, which is accompanied with fliarp 
biting Erofts, fomething more (harpc then is 
in old Englarfd^and therefore arc forced to 
make great Fires. 

TliirdlyjThis Countrey being verie full of 
Woods and VVilderneffcs, cloth alfo much 
abound with Snakes and Serpents of flrangc 
colours and huge greatnclTc : yea there arc 
fome Serpents called Rattle SnakeSjthat hauc 
Rattles in their Tayles tliat will not flye from 
a Man as others will, bat will flye vpon him 
and fling him fo mortally, that he will dye 
within a quarter of an houre after, except the 
partie ftingcd haue about him fome of the 
root of an Hcarbe called Snake weed to bite 
on, and then he fliall receiue no harme : but 
yet fcldome fallcs it out that any hurt is done 
oy thcfc. About three y ceres (ince an I/idian 
was ftung to death by one of them, but wc 
heard of none fincc that time. 

C 3 Fourthly., 



Tourthly and laftly^ Here^vantsasyet the 
good company of honeft Chriftians to bring 
with them Horfcs, Kinc and Sheepe to make 
vfe of this fruitful! Land : great pittic it i% to 
fee fo much good ground for Corne and for 
G ralTe as any is vncfer the Heauehs, to lye al - 
together vnoccupicdj when fb many honeft 
Men & their Families in old EngUnd through 
the populoulneffe thereof>do make very hard 
iLifc to Hue one by the other. 

N0W5 thus you know what Nero-EngtAnd 
iSj as alfo with the commodities and difcom- 
modities thereof: now I will (liew you a little 
of the Inhabitants thereof^ and their gouern- 
ment. 

For their Gouernours they haue Kings, 
which they call Sa^^amores^ lonie grcater^and 
fome leflcr, according to the nurhbcr of their 
Subiedsi 

The greateft Sa^gdmores about vs can not 
make aboue three hundred Men, and othei 
lefle Sagg&morcs haue not aboue fifrecne Sub- 
iects, and others neere about vs but two. 

Their Subiecls about tweluc yeercs lince 
were fwept xiway by a great and grieuous 
Plague that was amongft them^fo that there 
are vcrie few left to inhabite the Countrey. 

The indtAm are not able to make vfe of the 
one fourth part of the Land^neithcr haue they 
any fetled places^ as Townes to dwell in, nor 
any ground as they challenge for their owne 
poffejfion, but change their habitation from 
place to place. 

For 



NeW'Englmds Plantation. 

For their Staturcs^they arc a tall and ilrcng 
limmcd People^thcir colours arc tawny jthcy 
goc naked, fane oncly they arc in part couc- 
red with Beads Skins on one of their Slioul- 
ders^and wcarc fomething before their Pri- 
uitics: their Hairc is generally blackc^nnd cut 
before like our Gentlewomen, and one lockc 
longer then the refl:, much like to our Gcntlc- 
mcnjwhich fafliion I thinke came from hence 
into England. 

For their weapons, they hauc Bowes and 
Arrowes, Ibme of them headed with Bone, 
and ^omz with Braffe : I haue fent you fomc 
of them for an example. 

The Men for the mod part Hue idlely,they 
doe nothing but hunt and filli: their wiues fet 
their Corne and doc all their other worke. 
They haue little Hoiifliald ftuffe, as a Kettle^ 
and fame other Veflels like Trayes, Spooncs^ 
Diflies and Baskets. 

Their Houfes are verie little and homely, 
being made with fmall Poles pricked into 
the ground, and fo bended and faftned at the 
tops, and on the iides they arc matted w ith 
Boughes,& couaed on the Roofe with Sedge 
and old Mats^and for their beds that they take 
their reft on, they haue a Mat. 

They doe generally profefTe to like well of 
our comming and planting here^ paniy bc- 
caufe tnere is abundance of ground that they 
cannot pofTeffe nor make vfc of, and partly 
becaufc our being here will be a meancs both 
of reJiefc to them when they want, and a!fo 2 

defence 



mvf'tngUnis VkntAtion. 
defence from their Enemies, wherewith (I 
fay ) before this Plantation bcgiin, they were 
often indangered. 

For their Religion, they doe worfliip two 
Gods, a good God and an euill God ; the 
good God dicy call TAntum, and their euill 
God ivhom they fcarc will doe them hurt, 
they call S({mntum. 

Tor their dealing with vs, we neither feare 
them nor truft them, for fourtic of our Muf- 
keteeres will driuc fiue hundred of them out 
of the Field. Wc vfc them kindly, they will 
come into our Houfes fometimes by halfe a 
douzen or halfe a fcore at a time when we arc 
at viduals, but will aske or take nothing but 
what we giue them. 

We purpofc to learne their Language as 
foone as wc can^which will be a meanes to do 
them good. 

Of the frefent conditiin cfthePlaniathrft 
Aiidv^hatitu. 

WHen we came firft toNeibum keky we 
found about halfe a fcore Houfes^and 
a fairc Houfe newly built for the Gouernpur, 
we found alfb aboundance of Corne planted 
by thcm^verie good and well hkeing. And we 
brought with vs about two hundred Paflen- 
gers and Planters more, which by common 
confent of the old Planters were all combi- 
ned together into one Body PoUticke^ vnder 
the fame Couernoun 

There 



tlew-EngUnds Ptantdtho^ 
There are in all of vs both old and new 
Planters about three hundred, whereof two 
hundred of them are fetlcd at Nebum-kekjtiow 
called Sdlan : and the reft haue Planted them- 
(elues at M^^tbukts Bay, beginning to build 
a Towne there which we doe call chertiH^ or 
ChdrUi Towne. 

We that are fctled at SsUm make what haft 
we can to build Houfcs, fo that within a (liort 
time we fhall haue a faire Towne. 

We haue great Ordnance, wherewith wc 
doubt not but we fliall foniifie our fclues in. 
a fliort time to kecpc out a potent Aduerfarie. 
But that which is our grcateft comfort, and 
mcanes of defence aboue all othcr,is,that wc 
haue here the true Religion and holy Ordi- 
nances of Almightie God taught amongft vs; 
ThanJces be to God,we haue here plentie of 
Preaching, and diligent Catechizing, with 
ftrickt and carefull cxercife, and good and 
commendable orders to bring our People in- 
to a Chriftian conuerfation with whom we 
haue to doe withall. And thus we doubt 
not but God will be with vs,and 
if God be with vSy wh an 
icAgdinfivs? 



FINIS. 



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 



Generall Consideracons 
for y^ plantacon in New 
England^ w^^ an aunswere 
to seuerall objections ' 

•I RST it will be a service 
to ye Church of great 
consequence, to carry 
ye gospell into those 
parts of ye world, & to 
raise a bulwarke agt ye 
kingdos of Antichrist 
wch ye Jesuits labour to reare vp in all 
places of ye world. 

Secondly all other churches of Europe 
are brought to desolacon, & it may be 
justly feared yt ye like judg^t is coming 
vpon vs : & who knowes but yt God hath 
provided this place to be a refuge for 
many whom hee meanes to saue out of 
ye generall destruction. 

Thirdly the land growes weary of her 
inhabitants, so that man wch is ye most 
precious of all creatures is here more vyle 

[ 41 J & 




General Considerations y &c, 

& base then ye earth they tread upon ; so 
as children neighbours & friends especially 
of ye poore, are counted ye greatest bur- 
dens, wch if things were right would be ye 
highest earthly blessings. 

Wee are growen to yt excesse &intem- 
peraunce in all excesse of riot as no meane 
estate almost will suffice to keepe saile w^h 
his equalls & hee yt fayles in it must [live] 
in scorne & contempt. Hence it comes 
to passe yt all arts & trades are carried in 
yt deceitfull maner & vnrighteous course, 
as it is almost impossible for a good up- 
right man to maintayne his chardge & 
Hue cofortably in any of ym. 

Fiftly ye Schooles of learning & relig- 
ion are so corrupted, as (besides ye unsup- 
portable chardge of this educacon) most 
children, (euen ye best wittiest & of fayr- 
est hopes) are perverted, corrupted & ut- 
terly ouerpowered by ye multitude of 
evill examples & licentious governors of 
those seminaries. 

Sixtly ye whole earth is ye Lords gar- 
den & hee hath giuen it to ye sons of 
Adam to bee tilled & improoued by ym 
why then should we stand starving here 
for places of habitacon (many men spend- 
ing as much labour & cost to recouer or 
keepe soetymes an acre or two of lands, 
as would procure him many hundreths of 
[ 42 ] acres, 



General Considerations &c, 

acres, as good or better in another place) 
& in ye meane tyme suffer whole coun- 
treyes as profitable for ye use of man, to 
lye wast wf^out any improouement. 

Seaventhly, what can bee a better 
worke and more noble & worthy a Chris- 
tian, then to helpe to raise & support a 
particular church while it is in it infancy, 
& to [join] or forces wth such a copany of 
faithfull people, as by a tymely assistaunce 
may grow stronger & prosper, & for want 
of it may be put to great hazzard if not 
wholly ruinated ? 

Eightly if any such as are knowne to 
bee godly & liue in wealth & prosperity 
here, shall forsake all this to joyne 
ymselves w^h this church, & runne in 
hazard w^h ym of hard & meane condi- 
con, it will be an example of great vse 
both for yeremooving of Scandall & sin- 
ister & worldly respects, to giue more lyfe 
to ye faith of Gods people in their prayers 
for ye plantacon, & also to encourage 
others to joyne ye more willingly in it. 

Objections: 

OBj. I. It will bee a great wrong to 
or owne church & countrey to take 
away the best people; & we still lay it 
more open to ye judgmts feared. 

[ 43 ] Aunsw. i. 



General Considerations &c. 

Aunsw. I. The number will be no- 
thing in respect of those yt are left. 2ly 
many yt Hue to no vse here, more then 
for their owne priuate familyes may bee 
employed to a more como good in another 
place. 3ly fuch as are of good vse here 
may yett be so employed as ye church 
shall receiue no lolle. and since Christs 
coming ye church is to be conceiued as 
universall wthout distinctio of countryes, 
so as hee yt doth good in any one place 
serves ye church in all places, in regard of 
ye vnitye. 4^% it is ye revealed will of God 
yt ye gospell should be preached to all 
nations, and though we know not whether 
ye Indians will receiue it or not, yet it is a 
good worke to observe Gods will in offer- 
ing it to y% for God shall haue glory by 
it though yy refuse it. 

Object. 2. wee haue feared a judge^t 
along tyme,but yet we are safe; therefore 
it were better to stay till it come, & either 
we may flie then, or if we be ouertaken 
in it wee may well bee content to suffer 
wth such a church as ours is. 

Aunsw. It is likely yt this confideracon 
made ye churches beyond ye seas as ye Pal- 
atinate & Rochel &c to sit still at home, 
& not looke out for shelter while yy might 
haue found it. but ye wofull spectacle of 
their ruine may teach us more wisdome 
[ 44 ] to 



General Considerations &c. 

to avoid ye plague while it is foreseene, & 
not to tarry as yy did till it ouertooke ym. 
If they were now at their former liberty, 
wee may be sure yy would take other 
courses for their safety. And though most 
of ym had miscarried in their escape, yet 
it had not bene halfe so miserable to 
th^selves, or scandalous to religion, as this 
desperate backsliding and abjuring ye 
truth, wch many of ye auntient profes- 
sours among ym, & ye whole posterity that 
remayne are plunged into. 

Object. 3. wee haue here a fruitfull 
Land w^h peace & plenty of all things. 

Aunsw : wee are like to haue as good 
condicons there in tyme; but yet we 
must leaue all this abundance, if it beenot 
taken fro vs. When we are in or graues, 
it will bee all one whether we haue lined 
in plenty or in penury, whether we haue 
dyed in a bed of downe or lockes of straw. 
Onely this is ye advantage of ye meane 
condicon, yt it is a more freedoe to dye. 
And ye lesse cofort any haue in ye things 
of this world, ye more liberty yy haue to 
lay vp treasure in heauen. 

Obj. 4. wee may perish by ye way or 
when we coe there, having hunger or ye 
sword &c and how vncofortable will it 
bee to see or wives & children & friends 
come to such miserie by or occasion ? 

[ 45 ] Aunsw. 



General Considerations &c, 

Aunsw. Such objections savour too 
much of ye flesh. Who can secure him- 
selfe or his fro ye like calamities here? If 
this course bee warrantable, we may trust 
Gods providence for these things. Either 
hee will keepe those evills fro vs, or will 
dispose ym for or good & enable vs to 
beare ym. 

Obj. 5. But what warrant haue we to 
take yt land, w^h is & hath bene of long 
tyme possessed of others ye sons of Adam ? 

Aunsw. That wch is como to all is proper 
to none. This Savage people ruleth ouer 
many lands wthout title or property : for yy 
inclofe no ground, neither haue yycattell 
to maintayne it, but remooue their dwell- 
ings as yy haue occafion, or asyy canpre- 
vaile agt their neighbours. And why may 
not Chriftians haue liberty to go & dwell 
amongst ym in their wast lands & woodds 
(leaving ym such places as yy haue man- 
ured for their corne) as lawfully, as Abra- 
ham did amongst ye Sodomites? For 
God hath giuen to ye sons of men a 2 
fould right to ye earth: there is anaturall 
right & a civill right. The first right was 
naturallwhen men held ye earth incomo, 
every man sowing & seeding where hee 
pleased: then, as men and cattell in- 
creased, yy appropriated someparcells of 
ground by enclosing & peculiar manur- 
[ 46 ] ance. 



General Considerations &c. 

ance, & this in tyme got ym a civill 
right. Such was ye right wch Ephron ye 
Hittite had in ye field of Machpelah, 
wherein Abraham could not bury a dead 
corps wthout leaue, though for ye outparts 
of ye countrey wch lay comon, hee dwelt 
vpo ym & tooke ye fruit of ym at his pleas- 
ure. This appeares also in Jacob & his 
sons who fedd their flocks as bouldly inye 
Canaanites Land for hee is said to bee Lord 
of ye countrey ; & at Dotham and all other 
places men accounted nothing their owne, 
but yt wch yy had appropriated by their 
owne industry, as appeares plainly by 
Abimelechs servaunts, who in their owne 
countrey did often contend wth Isaacks 
servaunts about wells w^h yy had digged ; 
but neuer about ye lands wch yy occupied. 
Solikewife betweene Jacob &Laban: hee 
would not take a kidd of Labans w^hout 
speciall contract; but hee makes nobar- 
gaine wth him for ye land where yy fedd. 
And it is probable yt if ye countrey had not 
bene as free for Jacob as for Laban, yt cov- 
etous wretch would haue made his advant- 
age of him, & haue vpbraided Jacob w^h 
it as hee didw^h ye rest. 2% there is more 
then enough for ym & vs. 3dly God hath 
confumed ye natives w^h a miraculous 
plague, whereby ye greater part of ye 
countrey is left void of inhabitants. 417, we 
[ 47 ] shall 



General Considerations &c, 

shall cob in wth good leaue of ye natiues. 

Obj. 6. we shall send or young ones & 
such as may best bee spared, & not of ye 
best of or ministers & magistrates. 

Aunsw. It is a great worke & requires 
more skilfull Artisans to lay ye foundacon 
of a new building, then to uphoald & 
repayre one yt is already built. If great 
things bee attempted by weake instru^ts^ 
ye effects will bee aunswerable. 

Obj. 7. Wee see yt those plantacons yt 
haue bene formerly made, succeeded ill. 

Aunsw. I The fruit of any publique 
designe is not to bee discerned by ye iine- 
diat successe : it may appeare in tyme, yt 
yy were all to good vse. 2^^y, there were 
great fundamentall errours in others wch 
are like to bee avoided in this: for i their 
mayne end & purpose was carnall & not 
religious. 2 yy aymed chiefely at profitt 
& not at ye propagacon of religion. 3 yy 
vsed too vnfitt instrun^^s^ a multitude of 
rude vngoverned persons, ye very scums 
of ye Land. 4 yy did not stablish a right 
fourme of gouernmt. 



THE AGREEMENT WITH 
MR. HIGGINSON 



THE AGREE 



MT 



WTH 



M^ HIGGINSON 

A true note of y^ allowance y^ y^ new 
England Copany haue by cornb consent 
& order of their Court & Counsell 
graunted vnto M^, Francis Higginson 
minister^ for his maintenaunce in new 
England ^/>r/7 8, 1629. 

MPRIMIS yt 30H in 
money shall be forth- 
wth paid him by ye 
Copanyes treasurer to- 
wards ye chardges of 
fitting himselfe w'h 
Apparell & other nec- 
essaryes for his voyage. 

2 Item yt loli more shall be payed 
ouer by ye said treasurer towards ye pro- 
vyding of bookes for present vse. 

3 Item yt hee shall haue 301* yearly 
paid him for 3 yeares to beginne fro ye 
tyme of his first arrivall in new England 

[5M & 




The Agreement with Mr. Higginson 

& so to be accounted & paid paid him at ye 
End of eury yeare. 

4 Item yt during ye said tyme ye 
Company shall provide for him & his 
family necessaryes of diett housing & 
firewood; and shall be at chardges of trans- 
porting him into new England: and at 
ye end of ye said 3 yeares, if hee shall not 
like to continue there any longer, to be at 
ye chardge of transporting him backe for 
England. 

5. Item yt in convenient tyme an 
house shall be built, & certayne lands 
allotted thereunto; w^h during his stay in 
ye countrey & continuance in ye minis- 
trey shall bee for his vse; & after his death 
or remoovall ye same to be for Succeeding 
ministers. 

6. Item at ye expiracon of ye said 3 
yeares an 1 00 acres of land shall be assign- 
ed to him & his heires for euer. 

7. Item yt in case hee shall depart 
this lyfe in yt countrey, ye said Company 
shall take care for his widdow during her 
widdowhood & aboade in yt country and 
plantacon: & ye like for his children 
whilst yy remayne vpon ye said plan- 
tacon. 

8. Item yt ye milke of 2 kyne shall 
bee appointed towards ye chardges of 
diett for him & his family e as aforesaid, & 

[ 52 ] halfe 



T^he Agreement with Mr, Higginson 

halfe ye increase of calves during ye said 3 
yeares: but ye said 2 kyne, and ye other 
halfe of ye increase to returne to ye Com- 
pany at ye end of ye said 3 yeares. 

9. Item yt he shall haue liberty of car- 
rying ouer bedding, linnen, brasse, iron, 
pewter, of his owne for his necessary vse 
during ye said tyme. 

10 Item yt ifhe continue 7 yeares upon 
ye said plantacon, yt then 100 acres of 
land more shall be allotted him for him 
and his for ever. 

Messrs, Higginson* s and Skeltori s Contract* 

THeSthof Aprill, 1629. Mr Francis 
Higgeson and Mr Samuel Skelton 
intended ministers of this plantacon, and it 
being thought meete to consider of their 
intertaynement, who expressing their 
willingnesse, together, also with MrFran- 
cis Bright, being now present to doe their 
endevourin their places of the ministery 
as well in preaching, catechizing, as also 
in teaching, or causing to be taught, the 
Companyes servants & their children, as 
also the salvages and their children, where- 
by to their uttermost to further the maine 
end of this plantation, being, by the as- 
sistance of Allmighty God, the conversion 

* Records of the Governor and Company of the 
Massachusetts Bay in New England. — Boston^ 1853. 

[ 53 ] of 



The Agreement with Mr, Higginson 

of the salvages, the proposicons concluded 
on wth Mr Francis Bright, the 2 of Feb- 
ruary last, were reciprocally accepted of 
by Mr Francis Higgison and Mr Samuel 
Skelton, who are in every respect to have 
the like condicons as Mr Bright hath, one- 
ly whereas Mr Higgeson hath 8 children 
it is intended that i ol» more yearely shall 
be allowed him towards their chardge. 
And it is agreed that the increase of the 
improvement of all their grounds during 
the first 3 yeares shall be at the Companies 
disposing, who are to fynde them dyett 
during that time, and tenne pounds more 
to Mr Higgeson towards his present fit- 
ting him and his for the voyage. 

Francis Higgison. 
Samuel Skelton. 



A TRUE RELATION OF THE 

LAST VOYAGE TO 

NEW ENGLAND 



A TRVE RELACON 

of y^ last voyage to new 
Eng/andydtchnng^W cir- 
custances w^^ y^maner of 
y^ passage wee had by sea, 
and what maner of coun- 
trey & inhabitants we 
found when we came to 
land : & what is y^ pres- 
ent state & condicon of 
y^ English people y^ are 
there already. 



Faithfully recorded according to y^ very truth 
fory^ satisfaction of very many of my lov- 
ing friends, who haue earnestly requested 
to he truly certifyedin these t hinges. 

Written from new England fuly 24, 1629. 



//. any Curious Criticke yt lookes for exactnes of 
phrases or expert seaman yt regard propriety of 
sea-termes &c 

[57] 



A TRVE RELACON 

of y^ last voyage to new 
England made y^ last 
Sumer, begun y^ 25^^ of 
April being Saturday, 
Anno doi 1629. 

HE copany of New 
England consisting of 
many worthy gentle- 
men in yecitty of Lon- 
don, Dorcester & other 
places, ayming at ye 
glory of God, ye pro- 
pagacon of ye gospell of Christ, ye con- 
versio of ye Indians, & ye enlargemt of ye 
Kings maties dominions in America, & be- 
ing authorised by hisroyall letters patents 
for yt end, at their very great costs & 
chardgs furnished 5 Ships to go to new 
England, for ye further setling of ye Eng- 
lish plantacfon y* yy had already begun 
there. 

[ 59 ] The 




A True Relation of the 

The names of ye 5 Shipps were as fol- 
loweth. The first is called ye Talbot, 
a good & strong shipp of 300 tunnes, & 
19 pieces of ordinance & served w^h 30 
mariners. This ship carried about an 1 00 
planters, 6 goates, 5 great pieces of ordi- 
naunce, wth meale, oatemeale pease, & all 
maner of munitioandprovisio foryeplan- 
tacon for a twelve month. The second ye 
George, another strong ship also, about 
300 tunnes, 2 o pieces of ordinance, served 
wth about 3 o mariners ; her chiefe carriage 
were cattell, 1 2 mares, 30 kyne, & some 
goates: also ther gad in her 5 2 planters & 
other provision. The 3 ^ is called ye Lyons 
whelpe, a neate & nimble ship of 1 20 
tunnes, 8 pieces of ordinaunce, carrying in 
her many mariners & about 40 planters, 
specially fro dorcester & other places 
thereabouts, w^H provision, and 4 goates. 

The 4th is called ye 4 sisters, as I heare 
of about 300 tuns, wch fayre ship carried 
many cattell wtH passengers & provision. 

The 5th is called ye Mayflower, carry- 
ing passengers & provision. 

Now amongst these 5 ships, ye George 
hauing the speciall & urgent cause of has- 
tening her passage sett sayle before ye rest 
about ye midst of April. And ye 4 Sisters 
& ye Mayflower being not throughly fur- 
nished, intended as we heard to sett forth 
[ 60 ] about 



[2 6] 
[ay] 



Last Voyage to New England 

about 3 weeks after vs : But we yt were in 
ye Talbot & ye Lions whelpe being ready 
for or voyage by ye good hand of Gods 
providence hoysed or sayle froGrauesend 
rAoril 2 cl on Saturday ye 2 5th of April 
L A "^ J about 7 a clocke in ye morn- 

ing. Having but a faynt wynd we could 
not go farre yt day, but at night wee ancred 
against Lie wch is 1 2 miles frograues end, 

& there we rested yt night & kept 

Sabbath ye next day. 

On monday we sat forward & came 

to ye flats, a passage soewhat diffi- 
cult by reason of ye narrownes of ye chan- 
nell & shallownes of ye water: & going 
ouer this wee were in soe daunger : for or 
ship being heavy laden & drawing deepe 
water was sensibly felt of vs all to strike 3 
or 4 tymes on ye ground: but ye wynd 
blowing soewhat strong we were carried 
Swiftly on, & at last by Gods blessing came 
safe to ancre at Gorin roade. 

[0-1 Tewsday we went a little further, 
J & ancred ouer agt MargretTowne, 
staying for a wind for ye downes. 

[ -1 Wednesday we came safely though 
^J wth much turning & tacking thor- 
ow ye gullies into ye downes, & stayed 
yt night. 

[30. May I. 2.1 Thursday. Fryday & 

t.^ J -i baturday ye wind blew 

[ 61 ] hard 



A True Relation of the 

hard fro south west & caused or ship to 
daunce, & diuers of or passengers & my 
wifFe specially were sea sicke. Here ye 
Kings ship called ye Assurance pressed 
2 of or mariners. Here we saw many 
Porpuses playing in ye sea w^h yy say is a 
signe of fowle weather. 

riVf av "iX ^'^^'^^ ^^y ^ windye day & 
L ^ *^ J could : we kept Sabbath stay- 
ing still at ye downes. 
r -j Monday God sent vs a fay re gale of 
L^ J wind north : n : East, whereby we 
came merily fro ye downes: & passing 
Dover we saw 6 or 7 saile of dunkirkes, 
wafting after vs : but it seemed yy saw or 
copany was too strong for ym, for then 
wee had wth vs 3 or 4 ships yt went for ye 
Straits: so yy returned backe fro pursu- 
ing vs any longer. But say ling w^h a good 
wind wee went speedily, & at night came 
neere ye He of Wight but being darke 
wee durst not put into ye channell, but 
put backe for sea roome 4 houres, & then 
other 4 houres sayled backe agayne ye 
same way. 

WTewsday early in ye morning we en- 
tred ye channell ye wind being weake 
& calme, & passed by Portsmouth very 
slowly; but in ye afternoone ye wind 
quickened, & wee were forced to ancre a 
little on this side Cowcastle but ye wind 
[ 62 ] growing 



Last Voyage to New England 

growing more favourable wee weighed 
& came to ancre again right against Cow- 
castle thinking to stay yt night, ye wind 
being very calme. Here I & my wifFe & 
rw -1 my daughter Mary & 2 maids & 
L y A soe others w^h vs obtained of ye 
mr of ye shipp to go a shoare to refresh 
vs & to wash or linnens, & so we lay at 
Cowes yt night. But ye wind turning 
when wee were absent, yy hoysed sayle & 
left vs there, & ancred 8 miles further 
ouer agt Yarmouth about 8 of ye clocke 
at night. 

M Wednesday betyme in ye morning 
ye shalope was sent fro ye shipp to 
fetch vs to Yarmouth; but ye water 
prooued rough & or weomen desired to 
bee sett on shoare 3 miles short of Yar- 
mouth, & so went on foote by land & 
lodged in Yarmouth yt night. 

[o -| On Thursday & fryday there Mr 
' * J Beecher allowed by ye copany 
gaue mee 40s to make or provisio of what 
things we would for the voyage. 

W Saturday we went to board agayne: 
& this day wee had 2 other men 
pressed to serve ye Kings Shippe; but we 
got one agayne by intreaty. 

[1 The Sabbath next day we kept ye 
'J shipp where I preached in ye morn- 
ing ; & in ye afternoon was intreated to 
[ 63 ] preach 



A True Relation of the 

preach at Yarmouth, where Mr Meare & 
captayne Borley entertained vs very kynd- 
ly, & earnestly desyred to bee certified of 
or safe arrivall in new England, & of ye 
state of ye countrey 

[-| Monday morning blew a fayre 
J wind fro East S : E : And ye lions 
whelpe having taken in all her provisio 
for passengers, about 3 of ye clocke in ye 
afternoone wee hoysed sayle for ye Nee- 
dles, & by Gods guidance safely passed yt 
narrow passage a little after 4 a clocke in 
ye afternoone. And being entred into ye 
sea, fro ye top of ye mast we discerned 4 
sayle of shipps lying southward fro vs. 
But night coming on wee tooke in or long 
r -| boate & shalope. And ye next day 
L J we had a fayre gale of Easterly 
wind yt brought vs towards night as farre 
as ye Lizzard. 

[-1 Wednesday ye wind still houlding 
*^J Easterly, wee came as farre as ye 
lands end, in ye vtmost part of Corne- 
wall, & so left or deare natiue soile of 
England behind vs ; & sayling about 10 
leagues further we passed ye Isles of Sillie 
& launched ye same day a great way into 
ye maine ocean. And now my wifFe & 
other passengers began to feele ye tossing 
wanes of ye westerne sea, & so were very 
sea-sicke. 

[ 64 ] And 



Last Voyage to New England 

And this is to be noted, yt all this while 
or passage hath bene vpo ye coast of Eng- 
land, & so ought truly to be accounted 
ye first day of o*" parting w^h ould Eng- 
land. 

Thursday ye same Easterly wind 
blew all day & night ; & ye next 
day ; so yt soe of ye seamen thought 
we were coe by this tyme loo 
leagues fro England, but toward 
night ye wind was calme. 

[^-1 Saturday we were becalmed all day. 
J This day met vs a little shipp of 
Bristoll yt came fro Christopher Hands. 
p -] Sabath being ye first Lords day we 
L 7 'J held at sea was very calme, es- 
pecially in the morning, but we were 
disturbed in or morning Service by ye 
approach of a Biskaniers shippe, a man 
of warre, yt made towards vs, & manned 
out his boate to viewe vs : But fynding vs 
too strong for him he durst not venture 
to assault vs, but made off. 

This day my 2 children Samuel & Mary 
began to be sicke of ye small-pockes & 
purples together, w^h was brought into 
ye ship by one Mr Browne w^h was sicke 
of ye same at Graues End, who it pleased 
God to make ye first occasio of bringing 
yt contagious sicknes among vs, wherewth 
many were after afflicted. 

[ 65 ] Monday 



[.4] 

[■s] 

[May] 



A True Relation of the 

p ^ -j Monday calme still, ye wind being 
L *J no: w: blowing a little towards 
euening, but contrary to or course. 
r -1 Tewsday wind so: w: as little 
L ^ J helpfull as ye former & blowing 
uery weake. This day ye mr of or ship, 
my selfe & another went aboard the 
Lions whelpe, where Mr Gibs made vs 
welcoe w^h bountifull entertayne^t. And 
this day towards night my daughter grew 
sicker & many blew Spots were seene vpo 
her breast, wch affrighted vs. At ye first 
wee thought yy had bene ye plague 
tokens; but we found afterwards yt it 
was onely an high measure of ye infectio 
of ye pockes, w^h were strucke agayne 
into ye child, & so it was Gods will ye 
child dyed about 5 of ye clocke at night, 
being ye first in or shipp yt was buried in 
the bowells of ye great Atlanticke Sea ; 
wch as it was a griefe to vs her parents, & 
a sorrow to all ye rest as being ye begin- 
ning of a contagious disease & mortality: 
so in ye same judge^t it pleased God to 
remember mercy in ye child, in freeing 
it fro a world of misery wherein other- 
wise shee had lined all her dales. For 
being about 4 yeares ould a yeare since, 
wee know not by what meanes, sweyed in 
ye backe, so yt it was broken & grew 
crooked, & ye joynts of her hipps were 
[ 66 ] loosed 



Last Voyage to New England 

loosed & her knees went crooked pittifull 
to see. Since wch tyme shee hath had a 
most lamentable payne in her belly, & 
would oft times cry out in ye day & in her 
sleep also my belly, w^h declared soe ex- 
traordinary distemper. So yf in respect of 
her wee had cause to take her death as a 
blessing fro ye Lord to shorten her mis- 
erie. 

p, , -1 Wednesday a wett morning, 

|_May20j yewindwasW:S:W: &in 
ye afternoone N: W: & by W: both 
being contrary to or course, wch was to 
saile W: & by S: Thus it pleased god 
to lay his hand vpo vs by sicknes & 
death & contrary winds; & stirred vp 
soe of vs to make ye moton of hum- 
bling or selves vnder ye hand of God 
by keeping a solemne day of fasting & 
prayer unto God, to beseech him to re- 
mooue ye continuance & further in- 
crease of these evills fro vs. wch was will- 
ingly condescended vnto as a duty very 
fitting & needfull for or present state and 
condicon. 

p -1 Thursday, there being 2 ministers 
L J in ye ship, Mr Smith & my selfe, 
we endevoured together w^h others to 
consecrate ye day as a solemne fasting & 
humiliacon to almighty God,asafurther- 
aunce of o*" present worke. And it pleased 
[ 67 ] God 



[ 

[May] 



A "True Relation of the 

God ye ship was becalmed all day, so yt 
we were freed fro any encumbraunce: 
And as soone as we had done prayers, 
see & behould ye goodnes of god, about 
7 a clocke at night ye wind turned to 
n : e : & we had a fayre gale yt night as a 
manifest evidence of ye Lords hearing 
or prayers. I heard soe of ye mariners say, 
yy thought this was ye first sea-fast yt euer 
was kept, & yt yy neuer heard of ye like 
perfourmed at sea before. 

]Fryday ye wind fayre, & east north- 
erly, & for or purpose for new 
England, it did blow strongly & 
carried vs on amayne wth tossing 
wanes, wch did affright ym yt were not 
wonted to such sights. 

[1 Saturday ye same wind blowing 
3 'J but more gently. Now we were 
coforted wth hope of my sonne Samuels 
recovery of ye pockes. 

The 2 Lords day, a fayre day, an 
orderly wind & prosperous. 
On Monday a fayre frummegale, 
ye wind South S : W : 

[, 1 Tewsday about i oof ye clocke in 
'J ye morning, whilest we were at 
prayers a strong and sudden blast came 
fro ye north, yt hoysed vp ye wanes & 
tossed vs more then euer before & held vs 
all yt day till towards night & then abated 
[ 68 ] by 



[24.] 



[ 



Last Voyage to New England 

by little & little till it was calme. This 
day Mr Goffes great dogg fell ouer board 
& could not be recouered. 

1 Wednesday, ye wind still no : & 
' J calme in ye morning, but about 
noone there arose a So: wind, wch en- 
creased more & more, so yt it seemed to vs 
yt are land men a sore & terrible storme ; 
for ye wind blew mightily, ye rayne fell 
vehemently, ye sea roared & ye waues 
tossed vs horribly ; besides it was fearfull 
darke & ye mariners maid was afraid; 
& noyse on the other side wth their run- 
ning here & there, lowd crying one to 
another to pull at this & yt rope. The 
V\A "1 ^^^^^ powred y^selues ouer 

L y / J ye shippe yt ye 2 boates were 
filled wth water, yt yy were fayne to 
strike holes in ye midst of ym to let ye 
water out. Yea by ye violence of ye waues 
ye long boate coard wch held it was bro- 
ken, & it had like to haue bene washed 
ouerboard, had not ye mariners w^h much 
payne & daunger recouered ye same. But 
this lasted not many houres; after which 
it became a calmish day. All wch while 
I lay close & warme in my cabine, but 
farre fro hauing list to sleepe wth Jonah; 
my thoughts were otherwise employed 
asyetyme & place required. Then I saw 
ye truth of ye Scripture Psal. 107, fro ye 
[ 69 ] 23 



A True Relation of the 

23 to ye 32. And my feare at this tymc 
was ye lesse, when I rememberd what a 
loving friend of myne, a minister accus- 
tomed to sea stormes said to mee yt I 
might not be dismayed at such stormes, 
for yy were ordinary at seas, & it seeldome 
falls out yt a shipp perisheth at storms if 
it haue sea-roome, wch I ye rather wryte 
yt others as well as my selfe by ye know- 
ledge hereof may be encouraged & pre- 
pared agt these ordinary sea-stormes. 
r n -| Thursday So: wind: calme at 
L "J night: On fry day a boistrous 

wind blowing crosse, but was allayed to- 
wards night wth a showre of rayne. Sat- 
n -] urday So: w: wind, but faire & 
L^^Jquiett. 

L ^ *^ J Lords day, fayre & calme; 
wee saw abundance of grampas fishes, 2 
or 3 yards long, & a body as bigg as an 
oxe. 

py -1 Monday ye wind westerly & 

U J calme: but besides or being 

stayed by contrary winds we began to 
fynd ye temperature of ye ayre to alter 
& to become more soletry & subject to 
vnwholsome foggs. For coming now to 
ye height of ye westerne Islands, soe of 
or men fell sicke of ye scuruie & others 
of the small pockes, weh more & more 
[ 70 ] increased: 



Last Voyage to New England 

increased: yet thankes be to God none 
dyed of it but my owne child mencond. 
And therefore, according to or great need 
we appointed another fast for the next 
day. 

p -| Tewsdaywesolemnely celebrate an- 
L 'J other fast. The Lord yt day heard 
vs before wee prayed & gaue vs aunswere 
before we called; for early in ye morning 
ye wind turned full East, being as fitt a 
wind as could blowe. And sitting at my 
study on ye shipps poope I saw many 
bonny fishes & porpuses pursuing one an- 
other, and leaping soe of ym a yard aboue 
ye water. Also as we were at prayer, vnder 
ye hatch, soe yt were aboue saw a whale 
puffing vp water not farre fro ye shippe. 
NowmywifFe was prettily well recouered 
of her sea sicknesse. 

[-1 Wednesday a fayre day & fyne gale 
^A of full East wind. This day my selfe 
& others saw a large round fish sayling 
fT 1 ^y y^ ships side about a yard in 
\J J length & roundnes euery way. 
The mariners cald it a sunne fish; it 
spreadeth out ye finnes like beames on 
euery side 4, or 5. 



[ 



-1 Thursday & fryday ye wind full 
^' -^'J E: we were carried w^h admira- 
con on orjourney. By this wee were more 
then halfe way to new England. This day 

[71 ] I 



m 



A True Relation of the 

I saw a fish very straunge to mee, yy call 
it a caruell ; w^h came by ye ship side waft- 
ing along ye top of ye water, it appeared 
at ye first like a bubble aboue the water 
as bigg as a mans fist, but ye fish it selfe 
is about ye bignes of a mans thum, so yt 
ye fish it selfe & ye bubble resembleth a 
shipp wth sailes, w^h therefore is called a 
caruell. 

r r -| Saturday wind direct E: still. The 
L /J 4 Sabb: we kept at sea the wind 
full full Easterly till noone, & then 
it came full So : E : a strong gale yt 
night & ye next day till night. 

WTewsday ye same wind held till 9 
a clock in ye morning: & then a 
great showre wch lasted till about 7 at 
night, & then it was a very calme. There 
we sounded w^h a dipled lyne aboue 
1 00th fadome & found no bottome. This 
day we saw a fish called a turkle, a great 
& large shell fish swiming aboue ye water 
neere ye shippe. 

p -| Wednesday wind northerly a fyne 
L J gale but calmish in ye afternoone. 
n y -1 Thursday ye wind at no : an 
L J J easye gale & fayre morning 
we saw a mountayne of Ice shyning as 
white as snow like to a great rocke or 
clift on ye shoare. it stood still & there- 
fore we thought it to be on ground & to 
[ 72 ] reach 



I 



Last Voyage to New England 

reach ye bottome of ye sea. For though 
there came a mighty streame fro ye no: 
yet it mooued not, wch made vs sound, 
&we found a banke of 40 fathom deepe 
whereupo we judged it to rest: & ye 
height aboue was as much. Wee also 
saw 6 or 7 pieces of Ice, floating on ye 
sea, wch was broken off fro ye former 
mountayne, we also saw great store of 
water fowle swiming by ye shipp wthin 
musket shott, of a pyde colour & about 
ye bignes of a wild ducke, about 40 in a 
copany, the mariners call ym hag birds. 
Toward night came a fogge, yt ye lions 
whelp was lost till morning. And now 
we saw many bony toes porpuses and 
grampases every day more & more. 

[-1 Fryday foggie & calmish, ye wind 
J northerly in ye morning, but about 
noone it came S: E: a dainty loome gale 
wch carried vs 6 leagues a watch, 
r -1 Saturday ye same wind till night, 
L »^ J & we saw great store of porpuses & 
grampases. 

r -1 The 5th Sabbath, ye same wind, 
L ^J towards noone it began to be fog- 
gie, & then it rained till night we went 
4 or 5 leagues a watch. 

U-| Monday a fayre day but 
5 J foggie, ye same wind blow- 
ing but wth fresh gale carryed vs 7 leagues 
[ 73 ] a 



A True Relation of the 

a watch. In ye afternoone it blew harder, 
so ye sea was rough, & we lost ye sight of 
ye lions whelpe: it being foggie we 
drumed for ym& yy shot off a great piece 
of ordinance but we feared not one an- 
other. 

[x-i Tewsday wind So: & by E: fog- 
J gie till about i o a clocke while we 
were at prayers it cleared vp about an 
houre, & then we saw ye lions whelpe dis- 
tant about 2 leagues southward, wee pre- 
sently tackt about to meet her& sheedid 
ye same to meete vs, but before we could 
get together a thick fogge came, yt we 
were long in fynding each other. This 
day we sounded divers tymes, & found or- 
selves on another banke, at first 40 fathom, 
after 36. after 33. after 24. wee thought 
it to haue bene ye banke ouer agt chap 
Sable, but we were deceiued, for we knew 
not certainly where we were because of ye 
fogge. After 3 or 4 houres copany we lost 
ye lions whelpe agayne: &beate o^drume 
& shot off a great piece of ordinaunce & 
yet heard not of ym. But perceiuing ye 
banke to grow still yt shallower we found 
it 27 & 24 fathoms. Therefore being a 
fogg & fearing wee were too neere land 
we tackt about for sea roome for 2 or 3 
watches, & steered Southeast. 

[ 74 ] Wednesday 



Last Voyage to New England 

r "1 Wednesday very foggie still & wind 
L /J S: and by w: & sounding found 
no bottome yt we could reach, 
p r.-\ Thursday wind full w: & contra- 
L J rytovs. This day a notorious wick- 
ed fellow yt was giuen to swearing & 
boasting of his former wickednes bragged 
yt hee had got a wench wth child before 
hee came this voyage & mocked at or daies 
of fast railing & jesting agt puritans, this 
fellow fell sicke of ye pockes & dyed. Wee 
sounded and found 38 fathom, & stayed 
for a little to take soe codfish & feasted 
o^selves merily. 

n -] Fryday wind west still, a very fayre 
L ^ J cleare day. About 4 a clock in ye af- 
ternoone soe went vp to ye top of ye mast, 
& affirmed to or great cofort yy saw land 
to ye north eastward, 
r -1 Saturday wind So : w : a fayre gale : 
L J we sounded & found 40, 30, 22, & 
a little after no ground. 

Sabb: being ye 6th Lords day; 

wind westerly but fayre & calme. 

Monday wind Easterly a fayre gale. 

This day wee saw a great deale of 
froth not farre fro vs : wee feared it might 
bee soe breach of water agt some new 
qvote.^ Therefore ye mr of or shipp hoised 
outyeshalop&wentwthsoeofyementosee 
what it was; but found it onely to bee a 
[ 75 ] froath 



[a,] 



A True Relation of the 
froath carried by ye streame. 

LJ *^ J gale. This day we examined 

5 beastly Sodomiticall boyes, wch con- 
fessed their wickednes not to bee named. 
The fact was so fowle wee referred ym to 
bee punished by ye governor when we 
came to new England, who afterward sent 
ym backe to ye copany to bee punished in 
ould England as ye crime deserued. 

[-1 Wednesday wind no: E: a fayre 
'^J day & cleare: about 9 a clocke in 
ye morning we espied a shipp about 4 
leagues behind vs; w^h prooued ye lions 
whelpe, weh had bene a weeke separated 
fro vs. we stayed for [blot (her)] copany. 
This day a child of goodman Blacke wch 
had a cosumpcon before it came to shipp, 
dyed. This day we had all a cleare & co- 
fortable sight of America, & of ye Chap 
Sable yt was ouer agt vs 7 or 8 leagues 
northward. H ere we saw yellow gilliflow- 
ers on ye sea. 

Thursday wind still no: Ea: a full 
& fresh gale. In ye after noone wee 
had a cleare sight of many Islands & 
hills by ye sea shoare. Now we saw abund- 
aunce of makrill, a great store of great 
whales puffing vp water as yy goe, soe of 
ym came neereo^shipp: their greatnes did 
astonish vs yt saw y^ not before : their 
[ 76 ] backs 



[^5] 



Last Voyage to New England 

backs appeared like a little Island. At 5 
a clock at 3 night the wind turned S. E. a 
fayre gale. This day we caught mackrill. 

[ /- -j Fryday a foggie morning, but after 
J cleare and wind calme. We saw 
many scools of mackrill, infinite multi- 
tudes on every side our ship. The sea was 
abundantly stored with rockweed and yel- 
low flowers like gilly-flowers. By noon 
we were within 3 leagues of Capan, and 
as we sayled along the coasts we saw every 
hill and dale and every island full of gay 
woods and high trees. The nearer we came 
to the shoare the more flowers in abund- 
ance, sometymes scattered abroad, some- 
tymes joyned in sheets 9 or i o yards long, 
which we supposed to be brought from 
the low meadowes by the tyde. Now what 
with fine woods and greene trees by land, 
and these yellow flowers paynting the sea, 
made us all desirous to see our new para- 
dise of New England, whence we saw such 
forerunning signals offertilitieafarre off. 
Coming neare the harbour towards night 
we takt about for sea-roome. 
r -| Saturday a foggie morning; but af- 
L / J ter 8 o'clocke in the morning very 
cleare, the wind being somewhat contrary 
at So. and by West, wetacktto and againe 
with getting little; but with much adoe, 
about 4 o'clock in the afternoone, having 
[ yj J with 



A True Relation of the 

with much payne compassed the harbour, 
and being ready to enter the same, see 
how things may suddenly change! there 
came a fearful! gust of wind and rayne and 
thunder and lightning, whereby we were 
borne with no little terrour and trouble 
to our mariners, having very much adoe 
to loose downe the sayles when the fury 
of the storme held up. But God be praised 
it lasted but a while and soone abated 
agayne. And hereby the Lord shewed us 
what he could have done with us, if it had 
pleased him. But blessed be God, he soone 
removed this storme and it was a fay re and 
sweet evening. 

We had a westerly wind which brought 
us between 5 and 6 o'clock to a fyne and 
sweet harbour,^ 7 miles from the head 
point of Capan. This harbour 20 ships 
may easily ryde therein, where there was 
an island whither four of our men with 
a boate went, and brought backe agayne 
ripe strawberries and gooseberries, and 
sweet single roses. Thus God was merci- 
ful to us in giving us a tast and smell of 
the sweet fruit as an earnest of his bounti- 
ful goodnes to welcome us at our first 
arrivall. This harbour was two leagues 
and something more from the harbour at 
Naimkecke, where our ships were to rest, 
and the plantation is already begun. But 
[ 78 ] because 



Last Voyage to New England 

because the passage is difficult and night 
drew on, we put into Capan harbour, 
r f^-| The Sabbath, being the first we 
L J kept in America, and the 7th Lord's 
day after we parted with England, 
r -1 Monday we came from Capan, to go 
L ^ J to Naimkecke, the wind northerly. 
I should have tould you before that the 
planters spying our English colours the 
Governour sent a shalop with 2 men on 
Saturday to pilot us. These rested the 
Sabbath with us at Capan ; and this day, 
by God's blessing and their directions, we 
passed the curious and difficult entrance 
into the large spacious harbour of Naim- 
kecke. And as we passed along it was 
wonderful to behould so many islands 
replenished with thicke wood and high 
trees, and many fayre greene pastures. 
And being come into the harbour we saw 
the George to our great comfort then 
being come on Tuesday which was 7 
daies before us. We rested that night 
with glad and thankful hearts that God 
had put an end to our long and tedious 
journey through the greatest sea in the 
world. 

[n The next morning the governour 
^ J came aboard to our ship, and bade 
us kindly welcome, and invited me and 
my wiffis to come on shoare, and take our 
[ 79 ] lodging 



A True Relation of the 

lodging in his house, which we did ac- 
cordingly. 

Thus you have a faithful report col- 
lected from day to day of all the partic- 
ulars that were worth noting in our 
passage. 

Now in our passage divers things are 
remarkeable. 

First, through God's blessing our pas- 
sage was short and speedy, for whereas 
we had looo leagues, that is 3000 miles 
English, to saile from Ould to New Eng- 
land, we performed the same in 6 weeks 
and 3 dayes. 

Secondly, our passage was comfort- 
able and easie for the most part, having 
ordinarily fayre and moderate wind, and 
being freed for the most part from 
stormie and rough seas, saving one night 
only, which we that were not used 
thought to be more terrible than indeed 
it was, and this was Wednesday at night 
May 27th. 

Thirdly, our passage was also health- 
full to our passengers, being freed from 
the great contagion of the scurvie and 
other maledictions, which in other pass- 
ages to other places had taken away the 
[ 80 ] lives 



Last Voyage to New England 

lives of many. And yet we were in all 
reason in wonderful danger all the way, 
our ship being greatly crowded with pas- 
sengers ; but through God's great good- 
ness we had none that died of the pockes 
but that wicked fellow that scorned at 
fasting and prayer. There were indeed 
2 little children, one of my owne and 
another beside ; but I do not impute it 
meerely to the passage; for they were 
both very sickly children, and not likely 
to have lived long, if they had not gone 
to sea. And take this for a rule, if child- 
ren be healthfull when they come to sea, 
the younger they are the better they will 
endure the sea, and are not troubled with 
sea-sicknes as older people are, as we 
had experience in many children that 
went this voyage. My wifFe indeed, in 
tossing weather, was something ill by 
vomiting, but in calme weather she re- 
covered agayne, and is now much better 
for the sea sicknes. And for my owne 
part, whereas I have for divers yeares past 
been very sickly and ready to cast up what- 
soever I have eaten, and was very sicke 
at London and Gravesend, yet from the 
tyme I came on shipboard to this day, 
I have been straungely healthfull. And 
now I can digest our ship diett very well, 
which I could not when I was at land. 
[ 8i ] And 



A True Relation of the 

And indeed in this regard I have great 
cause to give God praise, that he hath 
made my coming to be a method to cure 
me of a wonderful weake stomacke and 
continual payne of melancholly wynd 
from the splene: Also divers children 
were sicke of the small pockes, but are 
safely recovered agayne, and 2 or 3 pas- 
sengers towards the latter end of the voy- 
age fell sicke of the scurvie, but coming 
to land recovered in a short tyme. 

Fourthly, our passage was both pleas- 
urable and profitable. For we received 
instruction and delight in behoulding the 
wonders of the Lord in the deepe waters, 
and sometimes seeing the sea round us 
appearing with a terrible countenance, 
and as it were full of high hills and deepe 
vallyes; and sometimes it appeared as a 
most plain and even meadow. And ever 
and anon we saw divers kynds of fishes 
sporting in the great waters, great gram- 
puses and huge whales going by compan- 
ies and pufBng up water-streames. Those 
that love their owne chimney corner, and 
dare not go farre beyond their owne townes 
end shall neever have the honour to see 
these wonderfull workes of Almighty 
God. 

Fifthly, we had a pious and christian- 
like passage; for I suppose passengers shall 
[ 82 ] seldom 



Last Voyage to New England 

seldom find a company of more religious, 
honest and kynd seamen than we had. 
We constantly served God morning and 
evening by reading and expounding a 
chapter, singing, and prayer. And the 
Sabbath was solemnely kept by adding to 
the former, preaching twise and catechis- 
ing. And in our great need we kept 2 sol- 
emne fasts, and found a gracious effect. 
Let all that love and use fasting and pray- 
ing take notise that it is as prevaileable 
by sea as by land, wheresoever it is faith- 
fully performed. Besides the ship master 
and his company used every night to sett 
their 8 and 12 a clocke watches with 
singing a psalme and prayer that was not 
read out of a booke. This I wryte not for 
boasting and flattery; but for the benefit 
of those that have a mynd to come to 
New England hereafter, that if they looke 
for and desyre to have as prosperous a 
voyage as we had, they may use the same 
meanes to attayne the same. So letting 
passe our passage by sea, we will now bring 
our discourse to land on the shoare of New 
England, and I shall by God's assistance 
endeavour to speake nothing but the 
naked truth, and both acquaint you with 
the commodities and discommodities of 
the country. 



NEW-ENGLANDS PLANTATION 



NEW-ENGLANDS 
PLANTATION 

OR, 

A SHORT AND TRVE 

DESCRIPTION OF THE 

COMMODITIES AND 

DISCOMMODITIES 

of that Countrey. 



Written by M*^ Higgeson, a reuerend 
Diuine now there resident. 



Whereunto is added a Letter, sent by 
M' Graues an Enginere, out of New England. 

T^he third Edition^ enlarged. 



LONDON. 

Printed by T, and R. Cotes ^ox Michael Spar ke, 

dwelling at the Signc of the Blue Bible in 

Greene- Arbor .^ 1630. 



To the Reader. 

REader, doe not disdaine to reade this 
Relation : and looke not here to haue 
a large Gate and no building within: a 
full-stuffed "Tittle with no matter in the 
Booke : But here reade the truth, and that 
thou shalt find without any frothy bumbasting 
words, or any quaint new-deuised additions, 
onely as it was written (not intended for the 
Presse) by a reuerend Diuine now there liu- 
ing, who onely sent it to some Friends here, 
which were desirous of his Relations; which 
is an Epitomy of their proceedings in the 
Plantation. And for thy part if thou mean- 
est to be no Planter nor Venturer doe but 
lend thy good Prayers for the furtherance of 
it. And so I rest a Weil-Wisher to all the 
good designes both of them which are gone, 
and of them that are to goe, 

M.S. 




NEW-ENGLANDS 

PLANTATION. 

Etting passe our Voyage 
by Sea, we will now be- 
gin our discourse on the 
shore oi New-England, 
And because the life 
and wel-fare of euery 
Creature heere below, 
and the commodiousnesse of the Coun- 
trey whereas such Creatures Hue, doth by 
the most wise ordering of Gods prouid- 
ence, depend next vnto himselfe, vpon 
the temperature and disposition of the 
foure Elements, Earth, Water, Aire, and 
Fire (For as of the mixture of all these, 
all sublunary things are composed; so by 
the more or lesseinjoyment of the whole- 
some temper and conuenient vse of these, 
consisteth the onely well-being both of 
Man and Beast in a more or lesse com- 
fortable measure in all Countreys vnder 
the Heauens) Therefore I will indeauour 
to shew you what New-England is by the 
consideration of each of these apart, and 
[ 89 ] truly 



New-Englands Plantation 

truly indeauour by Gods helpe to report 
nothing but the naked truth, and that 
both to tell you of the discommodities 
as well as of the commodities, though as 
the idle Prouerbe is, Trauellers may lye by 
autoritiey and so may take too much sin- 
full libertie that way. Yet I may say of 
my selfe as once Nehemiah did in another 
case : Shall such a Man as I lye? No ver- 
ily: It becommeth not a Preacher of 
Truth to be a Writer of Falshod in any 
degree: and therefore I haue beene care- 
full to report nothing of ;/d"i£; England h\xt 
what I haue partly scene with mine owne 
Eyes, and partly heard and inquired from 
the mouths of verie honest and religious 
persons, who by liuing in the Countrey a 
good space of time haue had experience 
and knowledge of the state thereof, & 
whose testimonies I doe beleeue as my 
selfe. 

First therefore of the Earth of New- 
England and all the appertenances there- 
of: It is a Land of diuers and sundry sorts 
all about Masathulets Bay, and at Charles 
Riuer is as fat blacke Earth as can be scene 
anywhere: and in other places you haue 
a clay soyle, in other grauell, in other 
sandy, as it is all about our Plantation at 
Salem, for so our Towne is now named, 
Psal, 76. 2. 

[ 90 ] The 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

The forme of the Earth here in the 
superficies of it is neither too flat in 
the plainnesse, nor too high in Hils, 
but partakes of both in a mediocritie, and 
fit for Pasture, or for Plow or meddow 
ground, as Men please to employ it: 
though all the Countrey bee as it were a 
thicke Wood for the generall,yet in diuers 
places there is much ground cleared by 
the Indians, and especially about the Plan- 
tation: and I am told that about three 
miles from vs a Man may stand on a little 
hilly place and see diuers thousands of 
acres of ground as good as need to be, and 
not a Tree in the same. It is thought here 
is good Clay to make Bricke and Tyles 
and Earthen-Pot as need to be. At this 
instant we are setting a Bricke-Kill on 
worke to make Brickes and Tyles for the 
building of our Houses. For Stone, here 
is plentie of Slates at the He of Slate in 
Masathulets Bay, and Lime-stone, Free- 
stone, and Smooth-stone, and Iron-stone, 
and Marble-stone also in such store, that 
we haue great Rocks of it, and a Harbour 
hard by. Our Plantation is from thence 
called Marble-harbour. 

Of Minerals there hath yet beene but 
little triall made, yet we are not without 
great hope of being furnished in that 
Soyle. 

[ 91 ] The 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

The fertilitie of the Soyle is to be ad- 
mired at, as appeareth in the aboundance 
of Grasse that groweth euerie where both 
verie thicke, verie long, and verie high 
in diuers places: but it groweth verie 
wildly with a great stalke and a broad and 
ranker blade, because it neuer had been 
eaten with Cattle, nor mowed with a 
Sythe, and seldome trampled on by foot. 
It is scarce to be beleeued how our Kine 
and Goats, Horses and Hogges doe thriue 
and prosper here and like well of this 
Countrey. 

In our Plantation we haue already a 
quartof Milke for a penny: but the abound- 
ant encrease of Corne proues this Coun- 
trey to bee a wonderment. Thirtie, fortie, 
fiftie, sixtie are ordinarie here : yea Jo- 
seph's encrease in Mgyt is out-stript here 
with vs. Our planters hope to haue more 
then a hundred fould this yere: and all 
this while I am within compasse; what 
will you say of two hundred fould and vp- 
wards? It is almost incredible what great 
gaine some of our English Planters haue 
had by our Indian Corne. Credible per- 
sons haue assured me, and the partie him- 
selfe auouched the truth of it to me, that 
of the setting of i 3 gallons of Corne hee 
hath had encrease of it 52 Hogsheads, 
euery Hogshead holding seuen Bushels 
[ 92 1 of 



New-Englands Plantation 

oi London measure, and eueryBushellwas 
by him sold and trusted to the Indians for 
so much Beauer as was worth 1 8 shillings ; 
and so of this 1 3 Gallons of Corne which 
was worth 6 shillings 8 pence, he made 
about 327 pounds of it in the yeere fol- 
lowing, as by reckoning will appeare: 
where you may see how God blessed hus- 
bandry in this Land. There is not such 
greate and plentifull eares of Corne I sup- 
pose any where else to bee found but in this 
Country : because also of varietie of col- 
ours, as red, blew, and yellow, &c. and of 
one Corne there springeth foure or fiue 
hundred. I haue sent you many Eares of 
diuers colours that you might see the truth 
of it. 

Little Children here by setting of 
Corne may earne much more then their 
owne maintenance. 

They haue tryed our English Corne at 
new Plimmouth Plantation, so that all our 
seuerall Graines will grow here verie well, 
and haue a fitting Soyle for their nature. 

Our Gouernor hath store of greene 
pease growing in his garden as good as 
euer I eat in England. 

This Countrey aboundeth naturally 

with store of rootes of great varietie and 

good to eat. Our Turnips, Parsnips and 

Carrots are here both bigger and sweeter 

[ 93 ] then 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

then is ordinarily to bee found in England. 
Here are store of Pumpions, Cowcombers, 
and other things of that nature which I 
know not. Also diuers excellent Pot- 
herbs grow abundantly among the Grasse, 
as Strawberrie leaues in all places of the 
Countrey, and plentie of strawberries in 
their time, and Penyroyall,Wintersauerie, 
Sorrell, Brookelime, Liuerwort, Caruell 
and Watercresses, also Leekesand Onions 
are ordinarie, and diuers Physicall Herbs. 
Here are also aboundance of other sweet 
Hearbs delightfull to the smell, whose 
names we know not, &c. and plentie of 
single Damaske Roses verie sweete; and 
two kinds of Herbes that beare two kinds 
of Flowers very sweet, which they say, 
are as good to make Cordage or Cloath as 
any Hempe or Flaxe we haue. 

Excellent Vines are here vp and downe 
in the Woodes. Our Gouernour hath al- 
ready planted a Vineyard with great hope 
of encrease. 

Also, Mulberries, Plums, Raspberries, 
Corrance, Chesnuts, Filberds, Walnuts, 
Smalnuts, Hurtleberies, & Hawes of 
Whitethorne neere as good as our Cher- 
ries in England^ they grow in plentie 
here. 

For Wood there is no better in the 
World I thinke, here being foure sorts 

[ 94 J of 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

of Oke differing both in the Leafe, Tim- 
ber, and Colour, all excellent good. There 
is also good Ash, Elme, Willow, Birch, 
Beech, Saxafras, Juniper, Cipres, Cedar, 
Spruce, Pines, & Firre that will yeeld 
abundance of Turpentine, Pitch, Tarre, 
Masts and other materials for building 
both of Ships and Houses. Also here are 
store of Sumacke Trees, they are good 
for dying and tanning of Leather, like- 
wise such trees yeeld a precious Gem 
called Wine Benjamen, that they say is 
excellent for perfumes. Also here be 
diuers Roots and Berries wherewith the 
Indians dye excellent holding colours that 
no raine nor washing can alter. Also, wee 
haue materials to make Sope-Ashes and 
Salt-Peter in aboundance. 

For Beasts there are some Beares, and 
they say some Lyons also ; for they haue 
been seen at Cape Anne, Also here are 
seuerall sorts of Deere, some whereof 
bring three or foure young ones at once, 
which is not ordinarie in England, Also 
Wolues, Foxes, Beauers, Otters, Martins, 
great wild Cats, & a great Beast called a 
Molke as bigge as an Oxe. I haue seen 
the Skins of all these Beasts since I came 
to this Plantation excepting Lyons. Also 
here are great store of squerrels, some 
greater, and some smaller and lesser: 
[ 95 ] there 



New-Englands Plantation 

there are some of the lesser sort, they 
tell me, that by a certaine Skill will fly 
from Tree to Tree though they stand farre 
distant. 

Of the Waters ^New-England, with the 
things belonging to the same. 

New-England hath Water enough both 
salt and fresh, the greatest Sea in the 
World, the Atlanticke Sea runs all along 
the Coast thereof. There are abundance 
of Hands along the Shore, some full of 
Wood and Mast to feed Swine; and 
others cleere of Wood, and fruitfull to 
beare Corne. Also wee haue store of ex- 
cellent harbours for Ships, as at Cape 
Anne, and at Masathulets Bay, and at 
Sale?n, and at many other places: and 
they are the better because for Strangers 
there is a verie difficult and dangerous 
passage into them, but vnto such as are 
well acquainted with them, they are easie 
and safe enough. The aboundance of Sea- 
Fish are almost beyond beleeuing, and 
sure I should scarce haue beleeued it, 
except I had seene it with mine owne 
Eyes. I saw great store of Whales, and 
Crampusse, and such aboundance of 
Mackerils that it would astonish one to 
behold, likewise Cod-Fish in aboundance 
[ 96 ] on 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

on the Coast, and in their season are plen- 
tifully taken. There is a Fish called a 
Basse, a most sweet & wholesome Fish as 
euer I did eate, it is altogether as good as 
our fresh Sammon, and the season of 
their comming was begun when wee 
came first to New-England in June, and 
so continued about three months space. 
Of this Fish our Fishers take many hun- 
dreds together, which I haue seene lying 
on the shore to my admiration ; yea their 
Nets ordinarily take more then they are 
able to hale to Land, and for want of 
Boats and Men they are constrained to 
let a many goe after they haue taken 
them, and yet sometimes they fill two 
Boates at a time with them. And besides 
Basse wee take plentie of Scate and 
Thornbacks, and abundance of Lobsters, 
and the least Boy in the Plantation may 
both catch and eat what he will of them. 
For my owne part I was soone cloyed with 
them, they were so great, and fat, and lus- 
sious. I haue seene some my selfe that 
haue weighed 1 6 pound, but others haue 
had diuers times so great Lobsters as haue 
weighed 25 pound, as they assure mee. 
Also heere is abundance of Herring, Tur- 
but, Sturgion, Cuskes, Hadocks, Mullets, 
Eeles, Crabbes, Muskles and Oysters. 
Besides there is probability that the 
[ 97 ] Countrey 



New-Englands Plantation 

Countreyisof an excellent temper for the 
making of Salt: for since our comming 
our Fishermen haue brought home very 
good Salt which they found candied by 
the standing of the Sea water and the 
heat of the Sunne, vpon a Rocke by the 
Sea shore: and in diuers salt Marishes 
that some haue gone through, they haue 
found some Salt in some places crushing 
vnder their Feete and cleauing to their 
Shooes. 

And as for fresh Water the Countrey 
is full of dainty Springs, and some great 
Riuers, and some lesser Brookes ; and at 
Masathulets Bay they digged Wels and 
found Water at three Foot deepe in most 
places : and neere Salem they haue as fine 
cleare Water as we can desire, and we 
may digge Wels and find Water where 
we list. 

Thus wee see both Land and Sea 
abound with store of blessings for the 
comfortable sustenance of Man's life in 
New-England. 

Of the Aire ^New-England with the 
ternper and Creatures in it. 

The Temper of the Aire of New-Eng- 
land is one speciall thing that commends 
this place. Experience doth manifest 
[ 98 ] that 



New-Englands Plantation 

that there is hardly a more healthfull 
place to be found in the World that 
agreeth better with our English bodyes. 
Many that haue beene weake and sickly 
in old England, by comming hither haue 
beene thoroughly healed and growne 
healthfull strong. For here is an extra- 
ordinarie cleere and dry Aire that is of 
a most healing nature to all such as are 
of a Cold, Melancholy, Flegmatick, 
Rheumatick temper of Body. None can 
more truly speake hereof by their owne 
experience then my selfe. My Friends 
that knew me can well tell how verie 
sickly I haue bin and continually in 
Physick, being much troubled with a 
tormenting paine through an extraordi- 
narie weaknesse of my Stomacke, and 
aboundance of Melancholicke humors ; 
but since I came hither on this Voyage, 
I thanke God, I haue had perfect health, 
and freed from paine and vomiting, hau- 
ing a Stomacke to digest the hardest and 
coursest fare, who before could not eat 
finest meat; and whereas my Stomacke 
could onely digest and did require such 
drinke as was both strong and stale, now 
I can and doe often times drink New- 
England water verie well ; and I that 
haue not gone without a Cap for many 
yeeres together, neither durst leaue off 
[ 99 ] the 



New-Englands Plantation 

the same, haue now cast away my Cap, 
and doe weare none at all in the day 
time: and whereas beforetime I cloathed 
my selfe with double cloathes and thicke 
Wastcoates to keepe me warme, euen in 
the Summer time, I doe now goe as thin 
clad as any, onely wearing a light Stuffe 
Cassocke vpon my Shirt, and StufFe 
Breeches of one thicknesse without Lin- 
ings. Besides I haue one of my Children 
that was formerly most lamentably han- 
dled with sore breaking out of both his 
hands and feet of the King's-euill, but 
since he came hither hee is very well ouer 
he was, and there is hope of perfect re- 
couerie shortly euen by the very whole- 
somnesse of the Aire, altering, digesting 
and drying vp the cold and crude hum- 
ours of the Body : and therefore I thinke 
it is a wise course for al cold complec- 
tions to come to take Physick in New 
England: for a sup of New- England' s Aire 
is better then a whole draught of old 
England's Ale. In the Summer time in 
the midst of July and August, it is a good 
deale hotter then in old England: and in 
Winter "January and February are much 
colder as they say : but the Spring and 
Autumne are of a middle temper. 

Fowles of the Aire are plentifull here, 

and of all sorts as we haue in England as 

[ ICO ] farre 



New-Englands Plantation 

farre as I can learne, and a great many of 
strange Fowles which wee know not. 
Whilst I was writing these things, one of 
our Men brought home an Eagle which 
hee had killed in the Wood : they say 
they are good meate. Also here are many 
kinds of excellent Hawkes, both Sea 
Hawkes & Land Hawkes: and myselfe 
walking in the Woods with another in 
company, sprung a Partridge so bigge 
that through the heauinesse of his Body 
could fly but a little way ; they that haue 
killed them, say they are as bigge as our 
Hens. Here are likewise aboundance of 
Turkies often killed in the Woods, farre 
greater then our English Turkies, and ex- 
ceeding fat, sweet and fleshy, for here they 
haue aboundance of feeding all the yeere 
long, as Strawberries, in Summer all places 
are full of them, and all manner of Berries 
and Fruits. In the Winter time I haue 
seene Flockes of Pidgeons, and haue eaten 
of them: they doe fly from Tree to Tree 
as other Birds doe, which our Pidgeons 
will not doe in England: they are of all 
colours as ours are, but their wings and 
tayles are far longer, and therefore it is 
likely they fly swifter to escape the terri- 
ble Hawkes in this Country. In Winter 
time this Country doth abound with wild 
Geese, wild Duckes, and other Sea Fowle, 
[ loi ] that 



New-Englands Plantation 

that a great part of winter the Planters 
haue eaten nothing but roast meate of 
diuers Fowles which they haue killed. 

Thus you haue heard of the Earth, 
Water and Aire of New-England^ now it 
may bee you expect something to bee said 
of the Fire proportionable to the rest of 
the Elements. Indeede I thinke New- 
England ^ may boast of this Element more 
then of all the rest: for though it bee here 
somewhat cold in the winter, yet here we 
haue plenty of Fire to warme vs, and that 
a great deale cheaper then they sel Billets 
and Faggots in London: nay, all Europe is 
not able to afford to make so great Fires 
as New-England, A poore seruant here 
that is to possesse but 50 Acres of Land, 
may afford to giue more wood for Timber 
& Fire as good as the world yeelds, then 
many Noble men in England can afford 
to do. Here is good lining for those that 
loue good Fires. And although New- 
England h^ue no Tallow to make Candles 
of, yet by the aboundance of the Fish 
thereof, it can afford Oyle for Lampes. 
Yea our Pine-Trees that are the most 
plentifuU of all wood, doth alio wvs plenty 
of Candles which are very vsefull in a 
House: and they are such Candles as the 
Indians commonly vse, hauing no other, 
and they are nothing else but the wood of 
[ 102 ] the 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

the Pine Tree clouen in two little slices 
something thin, which are so full of the 
moysture of Turpentine and Pitch, that 
they burne as cleere as a Torch. I haue 
sent you some of them that you may see 
the experience of them. 

Thus of New-England' s commodities, 
now I will tell you of some discommodi- 
ties that are here to be found. 

First, in the Summer season for these 
three months, June, yulyy2inA August y we 
are troubled much with little Flyes called 
Musketoes, being the same they are 
troubled with in Lincolneshiere and the 
Fens: and they are nothing but Gnats, 
which except they bee smoked out of 
their houses are troublesome in the night 
season. 

Secondly, in the Winter season for two 
months space, the earth is commonly cou- 
ered with Snow, which is accompanied 
with sharp biting Frosts, something more 
sharpe then is in old England, and there- 
fore are forced to make great Fires. 

Thirdly, the countrey being very full 
of Woods, and Wildernesses, doth also 
much abound with Snakes and Serpents 
of strange colours, and huge greatnesse: 
yea there are some Serpents called Rattle- 
snakes that haue Rattles in their Tailes, 
that will not fly from a man as others will, 
[ 103 ] but 



New-Englands Plantation 

but will flye vpon him and sting him so 
mortally, that heewill dye within a quar- 
ter of an houre after, except the partie 
stinged haue about him some of the root 
of an Hearbe called Snake-weed to bite 
on, and then hee shall receiue no harme: 
but yet seldomefalles it out that any hurt 
is done by these. About three yeares since, 
an Indian was stung to death by one of 
them, but wee heard of none since that 
time. 

Fourthly and lastly. Here wants as it 
were good company of honest Christians 
to bring with them Horses, Kine and 
Sheepe to make vseofthis fruitfull Land : 
great pitty it is to see so much good ground 
for Corne & for Grasse as any is vnder the 
Heauens, to ly altogether vnoccupied, 
when so many honest Men and their Fam- 
ilies in old £;7^/^W through the populous- 
nesse thereof, do make very hard shift to 
Hue one by the other. 

Now, thus you know what New-Eng- 
land i^, as also with the commodities and 
discommodities thereof: now I will shew 
you a little of the Inhabitants thereof, and 
their gouernment. 

For their Gouernors they haue Kings, 

which they call Saggamores, some greater, 

and some lesser, according to the number 

[ 104 ] of 



New-Englands Plantation 

of their Subjects. 

The greatest Saggamores about vs can 
not make aboue three hundred Men, and 
other lesse Saggamores haue not aboue fif- 
teene Subjects, and others neere about vs 
but two. 

Their Subjects aboue twelue yeares 
since were swept away by a great & grieu- 
ous Plague that was amongst them, so that 
there are verie few left to inhabite the 
Country. 

The Indians are not able to make vse 
of the one fourth part of the Land, neither 
haue they any setled places, as Townes to 
dwell in, nor any ground as they challenge 
for their o wne possession, but change their 
habitation from place to place. 

For their Statures, they are a tall and 
strong limmed People, their colours are 
tawny, they goe naked, saue onely they 
are in part couered with Beasts Skins on 
one of their shoulders, and weare some- 
thing before their priuities : their Haire 
is generally blacke, and cut before like 
our Gentelewomen, and onelocke longer 
then the rest, much like to our Gentel- 
men, which fashion I thinke came from 
hence into England. 

For their weapons, they haue Bows 
and Arrowes, some of them headed with 
Bone, and some with Brasse : I haue sent 

[ 105 ] you 



New-Englands Plantation 

you some of them for an example. 

The Men for the most part Hue idely, 
they doe nothing but hunt and fish : their 
wiues set their Corne and doe all their 
other worke. They haue little Houshold 
stufFe, as a kettle, and some other Ves- 
sels like Trayes, Spoones, Dishes and Bas- 
kets. 

Their Houses are verie little and 
homely, being made with small Poles 
pricked into the ground, and so bended 
and fastned at the tops, and on the sides 
they are matted with Boughes and cou- 
ered on the Roofe with Sedge and old 
Mats, and for their beds that they take 
their rest on, they haue a Mat. 

They doe generally professe to like 
well of our comming and planting here; 
partly because there is abundance of 
ground that they cannot possesse nor make 
vse of, and partly because our being heere 
will bee a meanes both of reliefe to them 
when they want, and also a defence from 
their Enemies, wherewith (I say) before 
this Plantation began, they were often 
indangered. 

For their religion, they doe worship 
two Gods, a good God and an euill God : 
the good God they call Tantum, and their 
euill God whom they feare will doe them 
hurt, they call Squantum. 

[ io6 ] For 



New-Englands Plantation 

For their dealing with vs, we neither 
feare them nor trust them, for fourtie of 
our Musketeeres will driue fiue hundred 
of them out of the Field. We vse them 
kindly, they will come into our Houses 
sometimes by halfe a douzen or halfe a 
score at a time when we are at victuals, 
but will aske or take nothing but what we 
giue them. 

We purpose to learne their language 
assoone as we can, which will beameanes 
to do them good. 

Of the present condition of the Plantation^ 
and what it is. 

When we came first to Nehumkek^ we 
found about halfe a score Houses, and a 
faire House newly built for the Gou- 
ernor, we found also aboundance of 
Corne planted by them, very good and 
well liking. And we brought with vs 
about two hundred Passengers and Plant- 
ers more, which by common consent of 
the old Planters were all combined to- 
gether into one Body Politicke, vnder the 
same Gouernor. 

There are in all of vs both old and new 

Planters about three hundred, whereof 

two hundred of them are setled at Nehum- 

keky now called Salem: And the rest haue 

[ 107 ] planted 



New-Englands Plantation 

planted themselues at Masathulets Bay, 
beginning to build a Towne there which 
wee doe call Cherton, or Charles Towne. 

We that are setled at Salem make what 
haste we can to build Houses, so that 
within a short time we shall haue a faire 
Towne. 

We haue great Ordnance, wherewith 
wee doubt not but wee shall fortifie our 
selues in a short time to keepe out a potent 
Aduersary. But that which is our great- 
est comfort, and meanes of defence aboue 
all other, is, that we haue here the true 
Religion and holy Ordinances of Al- 
mightie God taught amongst vs : Thankes 
be to God, wee haue here plenty of 
Preaching, and diligent Catechizing, 
with strickt and carefull exercise, and 
good and commendable orders to bring 
our People into a Christian conuersation 
with whom wee haue to doe withall. 
And thus wee doubt not but God will be 
with vs, and if God be with us, who can he 
against us ? 

Here ends Master Higgesons Relation of 
New-England. 



[ Jo8 ] 




A hetter sent from New-England, 

by Master Graues, Engynere 

now there resident. 

Hus much I can affirme in 
generall, that I neuer came in a 
more goodly Country in all my 
life, all things considered : if 
it hath not at any timebeene manured and 
husbanded, yet it is very beautifull in 
open Lands, mixed with goodly woods, 
and againe open plaines, in some places 
five hundred Acres, some places more, 
some lesse, not much troublesome for to 
cleere for the Plough to goe in, no place 
barren, but on the tops of the Hils ; the 
grasse & weedes grow vp to a man's face, 
in the Lowlands &byfresh Riuers abound- 
ance of grasse and large Meddowes with- 
out any Tree or shrubbe to hinder the Sith. 
I neuer saw except in Hungaria, vnto 
which I alwayes paralell this countrie, in 
all our most respects, foreuery thing that 
is heere eyther sowne or planted prosper- 
eth far better then in old England: the 
increase of Corne is here farre beyond ex- 
pectation, as I haue scene hereby experi- 
ence in Barly, the which because it is so 
much aboue your conception I will not 
mention. And Cattle doe prosper very 
[ 109 ] well 



New-Englands Plantation 

well, and those that are bredd here farr 
greater then those with you in England. 
Vines doe grow here plentifully laden 
with the biggest Grapes that euer I saw, 
some I haue seene foure inches about, so 
that I am bold to say of this countrie, as 
it is commonly said in Germany of Hun- 
garia^ that for Cattel, Corne, and Wine it 
excelleth. We haue many more hopefull 
commodities here in this countrie, the 
which time will teach to make good vse 
of: In the meane time wee abound with 
such things which next vnder God doe 
make vs subsist, as Fish, Foule, Deere, 
and sundrie sorts of fruits, as musk-mil- 
lions water-millions, India-Pompions, In- 
dian-Pease Beanes, & many other odde 
fruits that I cannot name ; all which are 
made good and pleasant through this 
maine blessing of God,thehealthfulnesse 
of the countrie which far exceedeth all 
parts that euer I haue beene in : It is ob- 
serued that few or none doe here fal sicke, 
vnless of the Scuruy that they bring from 
aboard the Ship with them, whereof I 
haue cured some of my companie onely 
by labour. [Thus making an end of an 
imperfect Description, and committing 
you to God, &c. 



[ "°l 



A Catalogue of such needefull 
things as euery Planter doth or 
ought to prouide to go to New- 
England 

as namely for one man, which being 
doubled, may serue for as many as 
you please, viz. 
Victuals for a whole yeere for a man, 
and so after the rate for more. 

8 Bvsbels of meale, i Gallon of Oyle. 
1 Bushels of pease, i Gallons of Vinegar. 
1 Bushels of Otemeale. i Firkin of Butter. 
I Gallon of Aquavits. 

Apparell. 

I Monmoth Cap. 4 Paire of Shooes. 

3 Falling bands. 1 Paire of Sheets. 

3 Shirts. 7 Ells of Canuas to 
I Wast'coat. make a bed and boul- 

I Suit of Canuase. ster. 

I Suit of Frize. i Paire of Blankets. 

I Suit of Cloth. I Course Rug. 
3 Paire of Stockings. 

Armes. 
I Armor compleat. i Bandilier. 
I Long peece. 20 Pound of Powder. 

I Sword. 60 Pound of Lead. 

I Belt. I Pistoll and Goose shot. 

Tooles. 
I Broad Howe. i Broad Axe. 

I Narrow Howe. i Felling Axe. 



New-Englands Plantation 



I Steele Handsawe. 


I Gimhlet, 


I Whipsawe, 
I Hammer. 


I Hatchet, 
1 Frowes, 


I Shouell, 


I Hand-Bill, 


I Spade, 

1 Augres. 

4 Chissels. 

1 Percers stocked. 


I Grindstone, 
I Pickaxe, 
Nayles of all sorts, 


Houshold implements. 


I Iron pot, 
I Kettel, 


I <S^//. 

Wooden Platters. 


I Frying pan. 
I Gridiron. 


Dishes. 
Spoons. 


1 Skellets. 


Trenchers. 




Spices. 


Sugar. 

Pepper, 

Cloues, 


Cinnamon. 

Nutmegs. 

Fruit, 


Mace. 





Also there are diuers other things neces- 
sary to bee taken ouer to this Plantation, 
as Bookes, Nets, Hookes and Lines, 
Cheese, Bacon, Kine, Goats, &c. 



[ "2] 



The names of the most remark- 
able places in New-England. 



The old names. 


The new names. 


Cape Cod. 

The Harbor of Cape 
Cod. 


Cape lames. 
Milford Hauen. 


Chawum. 


Bar wick. 


Accomack. 


Plimouth. 


Sagoquas. 
Massachusets Mount. 


Oxford. 
Cheuit Hils. 


Massachusets Riuer. 


Charles River. 


Totan. 


Famouth. 


A great Bay by Cape 
Anne. 


Bristow. 


Cape ^ragabig sanda. 
Naembeck. 


Cape Anne. 
Bastablcy so named by 




King Charles: But 




by the new Planters 




now called Salem, 


Aggawom. 
Smiths lies. 


Southampton. 
Smiths lies. 


Passasaquack. 
Accominticus. 


Hull. 
Boston. 


Sassanows Mount. 


Snow don hill. 


Sowocatuck. 
Bahanna. 


Ipswich. 
Dartmouth. 


A good Harbor with- 


Sandwich. 


in that Bay. 
Ancociscos Mount. 


Shuters hill. 


Ancocisco. 


The Base. 


Anmoughcawgen. 
Kenebecka. 


Cambridge. 
Edenborow, 


Sagadahock, 


Leth. 


[ ^ ^ 


^3 J 



New-Englands Plantation 

Pemmayquid, S, Johns towne. 

Segocket. Norwich, 

Mecadacut, Dunbarton, 

Pennobscot, Aberden, 

Nusket. Low mounds, 

Monahigan, Barties lies. 

Matinack, Willow bies lies. 

Metinacus, H aught ons lies. 

But whosoeuer desireth to know as much 
as yet can be discouered, I aduise them 
to buy Captaine John Smiths booke of 
the description oi New-England in Folio ; 
and reade from Fol. 203. to the end; and 
there let the Reader expect to haue full 
content. 



Finis. 



SOME BRIEF COLLECTIONS 



SOME BRIEF COL- 

lections out of a letter that 
Mr. Higginson sent to his 
friends at Leicester. 

HERE are certainly- 
expected here the next 
spring the coming of 
60 familyes out Dor- 
cettershire,5 who have 
by letters signified so 
much to the Gov- 
erour to desyre him to appoint them 
places of habitations they bringing their 
ministers with them. Also many fami- 
lies are expected out of Lincolnshire^ 
and a minister with them, and a great 
company of godly christians out of Lon- 
don. Such of you as come from Leister, 
I would counsell you to come quickly 
and that for two reasons, ist, if you lin- 
ger too long, the passages of Jordan 
through the malice of Sathan, may be 
stopped, that you can not come if you 
[117] would. 




NeW'Englands Plantation 

would. 2dly, Those that come first speed 
best here,and have the priviledge of choos- 
ing choice places of habitations. Little 
children of 5 years ould may by setting 
corne one month be able to get their o wne 
maintenance abundantly. Oh what a 
good worke might you that are rich do 
for your poore brethren, to helpe them 
with your purses onely to convey them 
hither with their children and families, 
where they may live as well both for soule 
and body as any where in the world. Be- 
sides they will recompense the cost by 
helping to build houses and plant your 
ground for a tyme; which shall be diffi- 
cult worke at the first, exceptyou have the 
helpe of many hands. Mr. Johnson out 
of Lincolnshire and many others, have 
helped our godly christians hither to be 
employed in their worke, for a while, and 
then to live of themselves. We have here 
about 40 goats that give milke, and as many 
milch kyne; we have 6 or 7 mares and an 
horse, and do every day expect the com- 
ing of half a score mares more, and3oKyne 
by two shipps that are to follow us. ^ They 
that come let them bring mares, kyne, 
and sheepe as many as they can : Ireland 
is the best place to provide sheepe, and lyes 
in the way. Bring none that are in lambe, 
nor mares in foale; for they are in more 
[ 118 ] danger 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

danger to perish at sea. Of all trades car- 
penters are most needful, therefore bring 
as many as you can. It were a wise course 
for those of abilityes to joyne together and 
buy a shipp for the voyage and other mer- 
chandize. For the governour would that 
any man may employ his stocke in what 
merchandises he please, excepting only 
beaver skins, which the company of mer- 
chants reserve to themselves, and the man- 
aging of the publique stocke. If any be 
of the mynde to buy a shipp my cousin 
NowelFs^ counsell would be good. Also 
one Mr. [Beecher] a very godly man and 
the master of the ship we went in, and 
likewise one Mr. Graves the master's 
maite dwelling in Wapping may herein 
staund you in stead. The payment of the 
transportation of things is wondrous deare, 
as 5/ a man and 1 0/ a horse and commonly 
3/ for every tunne of goodes : so that a lit- 
tle more than willpay for the passage will 
purchase the possession of a ship for all 
together. 

No man hath or can have a house 
built for him here unlesse he comes him- 
selfe, or else send servants before to do it 
for him. It was an errour that I now per- 
ceive both in myselfe, and others did con- 
ceive by not rightly understanding the 
merchaunts meaning. For we thought 
[119] that 



NeW'Englands Plantation 

that all that put in their money into the 
common stocke; should have a house 
built for them, besides such a portion of 
the land; but it was not so. They shall 
indeed have so much land allotted to 
them when they come to take possession 
of it and make use of it, but if they will 
have houses they must build them. In- 
deed we that are ministers, and all the 
rest that were entertained and sent over 
and maintained by the rest of the com- 
pany, as their servants, for such a tyme 
in such employments, all such are to 
have houses built them of the comyan- 
ies charge and no others nor otherwise. 
They that put money into the stocke, 
as they do a good worke to helpe for- 
wards so worthy a plantation, so all the 
gayne they are likely to have, is accord- 
ing to the increase of the stocke at 3 
years end, by the trade of beaver, besides 
the lands which they shall enjoy when 
they will. 

All that come must have victualls with 
them for a twelve month, I meane they 
must have meale, oatmeale and such like 
sustenaunce of food, till they can gett 
increase of corne by their owne labour. 
For, otherwise, so many may come with- 
out provision at the first, as that our small 
beginnings may not be sufficient to main- 
[ 120 ] tayne 



New-Englands Plantation 

tayne them. 

Before you come be carefull to be 
strongly instructed what things are fittest 
to bring with you for your more comfort- 
able passage at sea, as also for your hus- 
bandrey occasions when you come to the 
land. For when you are once parted with 
England you shall meete neither with 
taverns nor alehouse, nor butchers, nor 
grosers, nor apothecaries shops to helpp 
what things you need, in the midst of the 
great ocean, nor when you are come to 
land here are yet neither markets nor 
fayres to buy what you want. Therefore 
be sure to furnish yourselves with things 
fitting to be had before you come ; as 
meale for bread, malt for drinke, woolen 
and linnen cloath, and leather for shoes, 
and all manner of carpenters tools, and a 
good deale of iron and Steele to make 
nails, and lockes, for houses, and furni- 
ture for ploughs and carts, and glasse for 
windowes, and many other things which 
were better for you to think of them 
than to want them here. 

Whilst I was writing this letter my 
wifFe brought me word that the fishers 
had caught 1600 basse at one draught, 
which if they were in England were 
worth many a pound. 



NOTES 



NOTES. 

1. Thomas Hutchinson, the historian of 
Massachusetts, attributed this document to 
Francis Higginson, but Alexander Young 
and Robert C. Winthrop have shown that 
another draft of these " Considerations,'* 
in the handwriting of Forth Winthrop, and 
now preserved in the Winthrop Papers, 
was probably inspired by John Winthrop. 
Another copy in the English State Paper 
Office is endorsed "White of Dorchester 
his instructions for the plantation of New 
England." 

2. Quote, /'. e. quost, an obsolete spelling of 
coast. 

3. The manuscript now in the library of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, ends at 
this point, the following pages having been 
lost since it was in the possession of Hutchin- 
son. The remainder of the journal of the 
voyage is reprinted from Hutchinson's 
"Collection of Original Papers relative to 
the H istory of the Colony of M assachusetts 
Bay," Boston, 1769. 

4. Gloucester harbor. 

5. These were the settlers who came with 
Maverick. 

6. The emigrants from Boston, England. 

7. The "Four Sisters "and the "Mayflower." 

8. Increase Norwell, afterward Secretary of the 
Colony. 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Aberden, 1 14. 
Accomack, 113. 
Accomintus, 113. 
Aggawom, 113. 
Air of New England, 29,98. 
Ancocisco, 113. 
Ancociscos Mount, 113. 
Anmoughcawgen, 113. 
Ash trees, 26, 95. 
Assurance (ship), 62. 

Bahanna, 113. 
Barley, 109. 
Barties Isles, 114. 
Barwick, 113. 
Bass, 27, 97. 
Bastable, 113. 
Beans, 1 10. 
Bears, 26, 95. 
Beavers, 26, 95, 119. 
Beech trees, 26, 95. 
Beecher, Mr., 63, 119. 
Berries, 25, 94. 
Birch trees, 26, 95. 
Birds, 31, 100. 
Biscay ship, 65. 
Black, Goodman, 76. 
Boats, Fishing, 28, 97. 
Borley, Capt., 64. 
Boston, 113. 
Boston (Eng.), 125. 
Bows and arrows, 35, 105. 
Brass, 35, 105. 
Bricks, 23, 91. 
Bright, Francis, 53, 54. 
Bristow Bay, 113. 

// [ I 



Brookelime, 25, 94. 
Browne, Mr., 65. 
Butter, III. 

Cambridge, 113. 
Candles, 32, 102. 
Cannon, 37, 60, 108. 
Cape Ann, 26, -]-], 78, 79, 

Cape Cod, 113. 

Cape James, 113. 

Cape Tragabig sanda, 113. 

Carrots, 25, 93. 

Carvel, 25, 94. 

Cattle, 23, 34, 60, 92, 104, 

109, 1 18. 
Cedar trees, 26, 95. 
Charles I, 6. 

Charles River, 22, 90, 113. 
Charlestown, 37, 108. 
Chawum, 113. 
Cherries, 26, 94. 
Cherton, 37, 108. 
Chestnuts, 25, 94. 
Chevit hills, 113. 
Christopher Islands, 65. 
Churches of Europe, 4 1 . 
Claybrook Parish ( Eng. ), 6. 
Cloth, 25, 94. 
Clothing for New England, 

30, 100, III. 
Codfish, 27, 96. 
Cordage, 25, 94. 
Corn, 23, 35, 36, 92, 107, 

109, 118, 120. 
Cornwall (Eng.), 64. 

29 ] 



INDEX 



Cowcastle (Eng. ), 62. 
Cowes (Eng.), 63. 
Crabs, 28, 97. 
Cucumbers, 25, 94. 
Currants, 25, 94. 
Cush, 28, 97. 
Cypress trees, 26, 95. 

Dartmouth (Eng.), 113. 
Death of child, 66, 76 ; of 

sailor, 75. 
Deer, 26, 27, 95, 96. 
Dog fell overboard, 69. 
Dorchester (Eng.), 59, 60, 

117. 
Ducks, 31, loi. 
Dunbarton, 1 14. 
Dye stuffs, 26, 95. 

Eagle, 31, I o I . 
Edenborow, 113. 
Education, 41. 
Eels, 28, 97. 
Endecott, Gov., 5, 79. 

Falmouth, 113. 

Fast kept, 67, 71. 

Filberts, 25, 94. 

Files, 23, 91. 

Fir trees, 26, 95. 

Fires in New England, 32, 

102. 
Fish, 27, 96, 121. 
Fishing nets, 28, 97. 
Force, Peter, 8. 
Four Sisters (ship), 60, 125. 
Foxes, 26, 95. 

Geese, 31, loi. 

George (ship), 60, 79. 
Gibs, Mr., 66. 
Gloucester, 125. 
Gnats, 33, 103. 



[ '3 



Goats, 23, 60, 92, 118. 
Gods, Indian, 36, 106. 
Goffe, Mr., 69. 
Gooseberries, 78. 
Governor's house, 36, 107. 
Grain, 25, 93. 
Grampus, 27, 96. 
Grapes, 25, 94, 1 10. 
Grass, 23, 92. 
Graves, Mr., 109, 119. 
Gravesend (Eng.), 61. 
Gum, 26, 95. 

Haddock, 28, 97. 

Harbors, 27, 96. 

Haughton's Isles, 114. 

Hawkes, 31, loi. 

Health in New England, 29, 
99. 

Herbs, 25, 94. 

Herring, 28, 97. 

Higginson, Rev. Francis, 5- 
II, 54, 117, 125; fam- 
ily of, 7 ; health of, 29, 
81, 99 ; sickness of child, 
30, 65, 100 ; agreement 
with, 51; sea journal of, 
57 ; sails from England, 
59 ; death of child, 66 ; 
lands at Neihumkek, 79 ; 
seasickness of wife, 81 ; 
letter to friends at Leices- 
ter, 117. 

Higginson, Mary, 63, 65. 

Higginson, Samuel, 65, 
68. 

Hogs, 23, 27, 92, 96. 

Horses, 23, 34, 60, 92, 
104, 1 18, 1 19. 

Household implements, 112. 

Houses, 119. 

Houses of Indians, 35, 106. 

Hull, 113. 

°] 



INDEX 



Hungaria, 109, 1 10. 
Hutchinson, Gov. Thomas, 
II, 125. 

Iceberg, 72. 

Indians, purchase corn, 24, 
93; dyes used by, 26, 
95 ; lights used by, 32, 
102 ; killed by a rattle- 
snake, 33, 104 ; Saga- 
mores of, 34, 1 04; num- 
ber of, 34, 195; de- 
stroyed by the plague, 34, 
47, 105 ; unable to use 
all the land, 34, 105; 
have no settled places, 34, 
105; personal appearance, 
35, 105 ; clothing, 35, 
105 ; w^eapons, 35, 105; 
utensils, 35, 106 ; houses, 
35, 106; approve coming 
of Englishmen, 35, 106; 
religion, 36, 106; lan- 
guage, 36, 107; title to 
land, 46 ; place names, 
113. 

Ipswich, 113. 

Isle of Wight, 62. 

Johnson, Mr., 118. 
Juniper trees, 26, 95, 

Kenebecka, 113. 

Land, abundance of, 34, 35, 

104, 106. 
Leather, 26, 95. 
Leeks, 25, 94. 
Leicester (Eng. ), 6, 117. 
Leith, 113. 
Lincolnshire (Eng.), 117, 

118. 
Lions, 26, 95. 

[ I 



Lion's Whelp (ship), 60, 

61, 66, 73, 74, 76. 
Liverwort, 25, 94. 
Lobsters, 28, 97. 
London (Eng. ), 59. 

Mackerell, 27, 96. 

Marble, 23, 91. 

Marble-harbour, 23, 91. 

Margate (Eng.), 61. 

Martins, 26, 95. 

Massachusetts, 113. 

Massachusetts Bay, 22, 90. 

Massachusetts Bay, settle- 
ment at, 37, 107. 

Massachusetts Bay Com- 
pany, 6. 

Masts, 26, 95. 

Matinack, 1 14. 

Maverick, John, 125, 

Mayflower (ship), 60, 125. 

Mecadacut, 1 14. 

Meere, Mr., 64. 

Melons, 1 10. 

Metinacus, 1 14. 

Milk, 23, 92. 

Minerals, 23, 91. 

Molke, 26, 95. 

Monahigan, 1 14. 

Moose, 26, 95. 

Mosquitoes, 33, 103. 

Mulberries, 25, 94. 

Mullet, 28, 97. 

Mussels, 28, 97. 

Names of places, 113. 

Neihumkek, 78, 79, 113; 
see also Salem. 

New England, 21, 89; soil, 
22,90, 109; minerals, 23, 
91 ; growth of vegetables, 
25, 93; woods, 26, 95; 
wild beasts, 26, 95; fish. 



31 ] 



INDEX 



27, 96; air, 29, 98; sea- 
sons, 30, 100; birds, 31, 
I o I ; discomforts, 33,103; 
winters, 33, 103; unoc- 
cupied land in, 34, 104; 
condition of plantation in, 
36, 107; reasons for set- 
tling in, 41; journal of 
voyage to, 57; healthful- 
ness, 82, no; clothing 
for. III; arms for, 1 1 1 ; 
tools for, 111,121; house- 
hold implements for, 112, 
121; places in, 113; fur- 
ther emigration to, 117; 
cost of transportation to, 
119; food for, 120. 

** New-England's Planta- 
tion,*' manuscript sent to 
England, 7 ; editions print- 
ed, 7 ; reprinted, 8 ; biblio- 
graphical description, 8; 
census of known copies, 
10; facsimile of first edi- 
tion, 17; reprint of third 
edition, 87. 

Norwich, 1 14. 

Nowell, Increase, 1 19, 125. 

Nusket, 1 1 4. 

Oak trees, 26, 95. 
Oatmeal, in. 
Oil, 32, 102, III. 
Onions, 25, 94. 
Otters, 26, 95. 
Oxford, 113. 
Oysters, 28, 97. 

Parsnips, 25, 93. 
Partridges, 31, loi. 
Passasaquack, 113. 
Pease, 25, 93, no, in. 
Pennobscot, 1 1 4. 

[ I 



Pennyroyal, 25, 94. 

Pemmayquid, 1 14. 

Pigeons, 31, loi. 

Pine trees, 26, 32, 95, 102. 

Pitch, 26, 95. 

Plague destroyed Indians, 

34» 105- 
Planters at Neihumkek, 36, 

107. 
Plymouth, 24, 93, 113. 
Portsmouth (Eng.), 62. 
Pumpkins, 25, 94, no. 

Raspberries, 25, 94. 
Rattlesnakes, 33, 103. 
Roses, 25, 78, 94. 

Sagadahock, 113. 

Sagoquas, 113. 

St. Johns towne, 1 1 4. 

Salem, Landing at, 6; name, 
22, 37, 90, 107, 113; 
harbor, 27, 96; wells, 29, 
98; houses, 36, 37, 107, 
108; number of settlers, 
36, 107; harbor, 79. 

Salmon, 27, 97. 

Salt, 28, 98. 

Saltpeter, 26, 95. 

Sandwich, 113. 

Sassafras, 26, 95. 

Sassanows Mount, 113. 

Schools of Europe, 4 1 . 

Seasickness, 62, 64, 

Segocket, 1 1 4. 

Sheep, 118. 

Ships, 60. 

Shuter's hill, 113. 

Sickness, 29, 62, 64, 99. 

Skate, 28, 97. 

Skelton, Rev. Samuel, 6, 53, 

54- 
Smallpox, 65, 66, 70, 75. 

32 ] 



INDEX 



Smith, Rev., 67. 
Smith, Capt. John, 114. 
Smith's Isles, 113. 
Snake weed, 33, 104. 
Snakes, 33, 103. 
Snowdon hill, 113. 
Soap ashes, 26, 95. 
Soil of New England, 22,90. 
Soldiers, 36, 107. 
Sorrel, 25, 94. 
Southampton, 1 1 3. 
Sowocatuck, 113. 
Sparke, Michael, 17, 87. 
Spices, 112. 
Spruce trees, 26, 95. 
Squirrels, 26, 95. 
Stone, Building, 23, 95. 
Storm at sea, 69. 
Strawberries, 25, 31, 78, 

94, lOI. 
Sturgeon, 28, 97. 
Sumach, 26, 95. 

Talbot (ship), 60, 61. 
Tar. 26, 95. 
Thornback, 28, 97. 
Tools for New England, 1 1 1 . 
Torches, 32, 103. 
Totan, 113. 
Trees, 26, 95. 
Turbot, 28, 97. 
Turkeys, 31, loi. 



Turnips, 25, 93. 
Turpentine, 26, 95. 

Vegetables, 25, 93. 

Vinegar, 1 1 1 . 

Voyagcto New England, 59. 

Walnuts, 25, 94. 
Wapping (Eng. ), 119. 
Watercress, 25, 94. 
Weapons of Indians, 35, 

105. 
Wells, 29, 98. 
Whales, 27, 96. 
White, John, 125. 
White benjamin gum, 26, 

95. 
Whitethorn, 25, 94. 
Wild cats, 26, 95. 
Willow trees, 26, 95. 
Willowbies Isles, 114. 
Winship, George Parker, 1 1 . 
Wintersavory, 25, 94. 
Winter season, 33, 103. 
Winthrop, Forth, 125. 
Winthrop, Robert C, 1 25. 
Wolves, 26, 95. 
Wood, William, 7. 
Woods, 26, 94. 

Yarmouth (Eng.), 63. 
Young, Alexander, 8, 125. 



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